stopped a fleeing convoying Jap troops towards New Guinea.
am losses greater, but Japanese threat to Australia ended
what was the turning pt in the pacific?
battle of midway
Battle of Midway, 1943
American cryptanalysts had broken Japanese code
– reinforced midway and surprised Jap. - turning pt in pacific
Significance of aircraft carriers
– war craft carries were decisive elements of midterm naval war.
Japan lost its four best aircraft carriers.
Battle in the Atlantic
Early setbacks – Devastation from German submarines
American response effective by second half of 1942 – built more sm escort vessels, ↑ patrol.
Result: more naval submarines.
War Powers Act
– allowed the pres to reshuffle gov agencies.
Empowered the gov to allot materials and facilities as needed for defense w/ penalties for companies that didn’t comply.
War Production Board –
directed the conversion of industrial manu to war production.
where to get the money for war
Revenue Act of 1942 – provided only $7bil increase in revenue.
Taxes – paid about 45 percent of wartime expenditures
Borrowing from the public
War bonds – $150bil+
Financial institutions – provided the remaining needed money.
Office of Price Administration
– congress authorized it to set price controls to keep pries from soaring out of control.
Stabilization Act of 1942
gave the pres authority to control wages and farm prices.
Smith-Connally War Labor Dispute Act
authorized the gov to seize plants and mines useful to the war effort.
Philip Randolph's March on Washington
to demand an end to segregation in defense industries.
fair Employment Practices Committee (FEPC) established
gave willing companies an excuse to hire blacks (“gov policy”).
Smith v. Allwright
struck down Texas's white primary
1942 would allow seasonal workers if the US promised not to draft them.
Zoot suit riots: 1943
thousands of soldiers and white civilians assaulted Hispanics, af ams, Filipinos.
Unintended consequences of "unconditional surrender"
Enemy resistance may have increased and it created an avenue opened for Soviet control of Eastern Europe.
The Teheran Conference, 1943
Included – "Big Three" leaders-Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin
Decisions – Planning for the D-Day invasion and the Russian offensive. Russia promised to enter war against Japan
United Nations – Commitment to creation of a postwar international peacekeeping organization
D-Day, 1944 /Battle of Normandy, Turning point!
Eisenhower in command of "Operation Overlord" – cross channel assault on Hitler’s Atlantic wall (reinforced Fr coast).
The invasion, June 1944
Did not go as planned – thick clouds and German anti-aircraft fire caused many paratroopers and glider pilots to miss their targets.
Unfavorable weather – low clouds caused allied planes to miss their targets.
Extremely high Allied casualties –5k+ but more German losses.
Mistakes – Fooled into thinking invasion would occur elsewhere. Poor defense strategy authorized by Hitler. Resistance to Hitler increasing among officers
Allies have Paris – by the end of August 1944. German resistance in Fr collapsed.
Slowing momentum of the Allied drive on Germany – Need for more planning and establishment of supply lines to sustain the drive
Battle of the Bismarck Sea, March
1943 – made it possible for allies to use the tactic of neutralizing jap strongholds w/ air and sea powers, then moving on. Significant Japanese losses
Battle of the Bulge, December 1944
– the Germans advanced along a 50mi bulge in allies lines in Belgium and Luxembourg. Airpower critical in effort to push German troops back and cutting off German supply.
the yalta conference 1945
Purpose? – Convened to discuss the end of the war, the shape of the postwar world
Roosevelt's goals – Ensure that Russia join the war against Japan, U.S. must join postwar international security organization, and Allies must preserve a united front against the German aggressors after the war.
End Result – Agree to divide occupation of Germany and Berlin among victorious Allied powers
Soviet violations of their agreements – they suppressed opposition in the occupied territories.
Secret agreements concerning the Far East
Stalin’s plan – he wanted to continue Soviet control over Outer Mongolia
How would he do that? – Return of Kurile Islands and other rights and territories lost in Russo-Japanese War of 1904 – 1905. Necessary to ensure Soviets entered the war against Japan.
marines invaded and controlled it. It was needed as a base for fighter planes escorting bombers over Jap.
was the largest amphibious operation of the pacific war.
When it fell, the jap emperor tried to seek peace terms, but the allies didn’t care