ch 23 respitory.txt

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ch 23 respitory.txt
2011-02-25 01:07:41


respitory ch 23
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  1. O2 starvation
    • results in rapid cell death
    • can result in a STROKE
    • failure of either respiratory or cardiac system causes this
  2. Pharynx
    • passageway for food & air
    • chamber for SPEECH production
    • includes tonsils in the walls of pharynx
  3. Tonsils
    protect entryway INTO the body
  4. If someone cannot use pharynx…
    • naso or oro or laryngopharynx is used
    • trachea
  5. which tract is more prone to infections
    lower respiratory tract
  6. Trachea
    extends from the larynx to T5 to the esophagus and then into the bronchi
  7. Tracheostomy
    • reestablishing airflow if airway is obstructed
    • can be through incision if larynx obstructed
    • can also be thru INTUBATION- passing a tube from mouth thru larynx and trachea
  8. Trachea layers
    • Mucosa
    • submucosa
    • hyaline cartilage
    • adventitia
  9. Bronchial tree
    epithelium changes from PSEUDOstratified --> ciliated columnar ---> nonciliated cuboidal as go DEEPER into lungs
  10. How to dilate airways
    Relax smooth muscle by releasing Epinephrine from Symp NS
  11. Bronchi layers
    • Primary: supply each lung
    • Secondary: supply each lobe of lungs
    • Tertiary: supply each segment
    • Repeated branchings are BRONCHIOLES
    • Type I: simple SQUAMOUS where GAS XCHANGE occurs
    • Type II: free surface of cells have MICROVILLI, secrete alveolar fluid containing SURFACTANT (allows for alveoli to EXPAND and reduces surface tension)
    • Alveolar DUST cells: macrophages that clean up the lungs
  13. Alveolar-Capillary membrane
    • involved in GAS exchange w/blood
    • 4 LAYERS
    • 1. Alveolar epithelial wall
    • 2. alveolar epithelial basement membrane
    • 3. capillary basement membrane
    • 4. endothelial cells
  14. Forced (labored) Breathing
    • Inhale: sternocleidomasteoid used (and peeks, scalenes) to lift chest upwards as gasp for air
    • Exhale: abdomen forces diaphragm UP and intercostal ribs depress
  15. Pulmonary Edema
    • fluid in lungs & REDUCED surfactant
    • can hear CRACKING sound when using stethoscope
  16. Breathing patterns
    • Apnea: temporary stopping of breathing
    • Eupnea: normal quiet breathing
    • Dyspnea: difficult or labored breathing
    • Tachypnea: RAPID breathing
    • Diaphragmatic breathing: descent of diaphragm causes stomach to BULGE during INhale
    • Costal breathing: only RIB activity involved
  17. O2 transport in the blood
    • OXYhemoglobin contains 98.5% chemically combined OXYGEN and HEMOGLOBIN
    • only dissolved O2 can be diffused into tissue, but does not dissolve easily in H20
  18. CO poisoning
    • Hemoglobin heme group binds to CO with more affinity than O2
    • Treated by administering pure O2 to compete with the CO for the spots on the heme group
  19. Hypoxia
    deficiency of O2, can be relieved by the enzyme erythropoietein which tells red bone marrow to produce more RBC's.
    • 1. Hypoxic Hypoxia: LOW O2 pressure in arterial blood due to FLUID or OBSTRUCTIONS in lungs, or high altitude
    • 2. Anemic Hypoxia: Too little fxning Hemoglobin (Hb), blood affected, hemorrhage or anemia
    • 3. Ischemic Hypoxia: blood flow is too LOW, heart affected
    • 4. Histotoxic Hypoxia: cyanide poisoning blocks O2 usage
    • nicotine CONSTRICTS bronchioles
    • CO in smoke binds to Hemoglobin (Hb)
    • Causes excess mucus secretion
    • INHIBIT movement of CILIAb/c of derby & chem from smoking
    • Elastic fibers in lungs can be DESTROYED leading to emphysema - reduced gas exchange & air trapped in alveoli
  22. Disorders of respiratory system
    • Asthma
    • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
    • pneumonia
    • TB
    • Pulmonary Edema
    • Cystic Fibrosis
    tissues in lungs become hard, making it so there is not much expansion or contraction of LUNGS