A/P 234

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pdizzle
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68913
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A/P 234
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2011-02-25 16:55:38
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Demoss Chapter Part
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Demoss Chapter 4 Slide 1-67
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  1. What is a Tissue?
    • Group of similar cells
    • Common embryonic origin
    • Common function And they work together to carry out specialized activities
  2. Study of tissues is what?
    Histology
  3. What does a Pathologist do?
    Looks for tissue changes that may suggest a disease state.
  4. How do you classify Epithelial Tissue?
    • Covers surfaces, cells contact with other cells
    • Lines hollow organs, cavities and ducts
    • Forms glands when cells migrate beneath the surface
  5. How do you classify Connective Tissue?
    • Generally material (matrix) is found between cells
    • Protects, Supports and Binds structures together
    • Stores energy as fat
    • Provides immunity
  6. How do you classify Muscle Tissue?
    • Cells shorten in length generating the physical force needed to put body structures in motion
    • Generates body heat
  7. How do you classify Nerve Tissue?
    • Cells that conduct electrical signals
    • Monitors/detects changes inside and outside the body
    • Coordinates body activities through the generation of nerve impulses
  8. What are the Primary germ layers within the embryo?
    • Endoderm
    • Mesoderm
    • Ectoderm
  9. Define the Tissue derivations?
    • Epithelial Tissue develops from all 3 germ layers
    • Connective & Muscle Tissue develops from mesoderm
    • Nerve Tissue develops from ectoderm
  10. Deinfe the Cell junction.
    Gap junction
  11. Define the Cell junction.
    Desmosome, this contains the protien Cadherin.
  12. Define the Cell junction.
    Hemidesosome. This contains the protien integrin.
  13. Define the Cell Junction.
    Tight Junction.
  14. Define the Cell junction.
    "Belt junction" or adherence junction
  15. What is unique to Muscle tissue?
    • Consists of elongated cells called muscle fibers or myocytes
    • Cells that shorten
    • Provide us with motion, posture and heat
    • Cells use ATP to generate force
  16. What are the 3 classifications of muscle cells?
    • skeletal
    • cardiac
    • smooth muscular tissue
  17. Indenifty the tissue and what it does.
    • Skelatal Muscle.
    • Cells are long cylinders with many peripheral nuclei
    • Visible light and dark banding (Striated)Voluntary or conscious control
    • Involuntary or unconscious control
  18. Identify the tissue and what it does.
    • Cells are branched cylinders with one central nuclei
    • Involuntary and Striated
    • Attached and communicate with each other by intercalated discs containing gap junctions and desmosomes
  19. Identify the tissue and what it does.
    • Smooth Muscle Tissue
    • Spindle shaped cells with a single central nuclei
    • Walls of hollow organs (blood vessels, GI tract, bladder)
    • Involuntary and Nonstriated
  20. Identify the tissue and it's parts.
    • Nerve Tissue
    • Consists of
    • Axion
    • Dendtires
    • Cell body
  21. Excitable Cells do what?
    • Neurons and muscle fibers
    • Exhibit electrical excitability
    • The ability to respond to certain stimuli by producing electrical signals such as action potentials
    • Actions potentials propagate along a nerve or muscle plasma membrane to cause a response
    • Release of neurotransmitters
    • Muscle contraction
  22. Epithelial tissue consists of cells arranged in continuous sheets, in either single or multiple layers are. . .
    • Closely packed and held tightly together
    • Covering and lining of the body
    • Free surface
  23. What are the general features of Epithelial Cells?
    • Apical (free) surface Faces the body surface, body cavity, lumen, or duct
    • Lateral surfaces
    • Faces adjacent cells
    • Basal surface
    • Opposite of apical layer and adhere to extracellular materials
  24. Identify the follwing of the parts of the structure.
    • (left to right)
    • 1. Apical or Free Surface
    • 2. Lateral Surfaces
    • 3.Epitheilaum
    • 4. Basement Membrane (containing Basal and Reticular Lamina)
    • 5. Connective tissue
  25. Ture of Fasle
    Epithial tissue do not contain thier own nerve supply.
    False. They indeed have thier own nerve supply
  26. Define Avascular.
    Lacks its own blood supply
  27. Do Blood vessels in the connective tissue bring in nutrients and eliminate waste to epithial cells?
    Yes, because they are considered avascular.
  28. What are the 2 main functions of epithial cells?
    • 1.Covering and lining epithelium
    • Outer covering of skin and some internal organs
    • 2.Glandular epithelium
    • Secreting portion of glands (thyroid, adrenal, and sweat glands)
  29. Classify the following tissue.
    Contains a single layer it is considered Simple. (simple cuboid)
  30. Classify the following tissue.
    Pseduostartified.
  31. Classify the following tissue.
    Columnar.
  32. Classify the following tissue.
    Stratified.
  33. Classify the following tissue.
    cuboidal
  34. Classify the following tissue.
    Squamous
  35. Define Simple epithelium.
    Single layer of cells that function in diffusion, osmosis, filtration, secretion, or absorption
  36. Appear to have multiple layers because cell nuclei are visualized at different levels
    Pseudostratified epithelium
  37. Deinfe Stratified epithelium.
    Two or more layers of cells that protect underlying tissues in areas of wear and tear
  38. True or False.
    Cells vary in shape depending on their function
    True.
  39. Describe a squmous cell.
    • Thin cells, arranged like floor tiles
    • Allows for rapid passage of substances
  40. Descibe a Cuboidal cell
    • As tall as they are wide, shaped like cubes or hexagons
    • May have microvilli
    • Function in secretion or absorption
  41. Much taller than they are wide, like columns. May have cilia or microvilli. Specialized function for secretion and absorption. Identify.
    Columnar cell.
  42. Define a Transitional cell.
    • Cells change shape, transition for flat to cuboidal
    • Organs such as urinary bladder stretch to larger size and collapse to a smaller size
  43. What is are the specific functions of a squamous cell?
    • Single layer of flat cells (tiled floor or cooked egg)
    • Lines blood vessels (endothelium), body cavities (mesothelium)
    • Very thin --- controls diffusion, osmosis and filtration
    • Nuclei centrally locatedCells in direct contact with each other
  44. What is Endothelium?
    The type of simple squamous that lines the heart, blood vessels, and lymphatic vessels.
  45. What is the Mesothelium?
    The type of epithelial layer of serous membranes such as the pericardium(heart), pleura (lungs), or peritoneum (stomach)
  46. Where are mesothelium and endothelim derived from?
    Unlike other epithelial tissue, Both are derived from embryonic mesoderm.
  47. What are the functions of a cuboidal cell?
    • Single layer of cube-shaped cells viewed from the side
    • Nuclei round and centrally located
    • Lines tubes of kidney
    • Absorption or secretion
  48. Describe Nonciliated Simple Columnar cells.
    • Single layer of rectangular cells
    • Unicellular glands, goblet cells secrete mucus
    • Lubricate GI, respiratory, reproductive and urinary systems
    • Also prevents the destruction of the stomach lining by acidic gastric juices
    • Microvilli, fingerlike cytoplasmic projections
    • For absorption in GI tract (stomach to anus)
  49. Mucus from goblet cells moved along by . Found in respiratory system and uterine tubes. Secreted mucus on the surface traps inhaled foreign particles. also moves oocytes to the uterine tubes
    Ciliated Simple Columnar Epithelium
  50. Describe Pseudostratified Columnar cells.
    • Single cell layer
    • All cells attach to the basement membrane but they don’t all reach the apical surface
    • Nuclei at varying depths
    • Respiratory system, male urethra & epididymis
  51. True or False.
    Stratified Epithelium is Two or more layers of cells?
    True.
  52. Specific kind of stratified epithelium depends on the shape of cells in what layer?
    Apical layer
  53. Describe Stratified Squamous Epithelium.
    • Several cell layers thick.New cells are pushed up toward apical layerAs cells move further from the blood supply they dehydrate, harden, and die.
    • Surface cells flat at apical surfaceKeratinized, surface cells dead and filled with keratin (skin)
    • Nonkeratinized, no keratin in moist living cells at surface e.g. Mouth, vagina
  54. What am I?
    Collect sloughed off cells of uterus and vaginal walls; Detect cellular changes (precancerous cells)
    Pap smear
  55. Where are Stratified Cuboidal Epithelium found most commonly?
    ONLY found in sweat gland ducts, esophageal gland & male urethra
  56. Where would you find Stratified Columnar Epithelium?
    Very large ducts & part of male urethra
  57. These are derived from epithelial cells that migrated below the surface during development.
    Glandular Epithelium
  58. Exocrine glands doe what?
    secrete---sweat, ear wax, saliva, digestive enzymes onto free surface of epithelial layer
  59. These are connected to the surface by tubes (ducts)
    Glandular Epithelium
  60. What do Endocrine glands do?
    • Secrete hormones into the bloodstream
    • Connection to surface has been lost
    • Hormones help maintain homeostasis
  61. Describe the Structural Classification of Exocrine Glands.
    • Unicellular are single-celled glands
    • Goblet cells
    • Multicellular glandsBranched (compound) or unbranched (simple)
    • Tubular or acinar (flask-like) shape
  62. Classify the duct.
    Basic clasification is Simple
  63. Classify the duct
    Compound duct.
  64. Multicellular glands are categorized according to two criteria: what are they?
    • Ducts are branched or unbranched
    • Shape of the secretory portion of the gland
  65. Identify the Functional Classification of the Exocrine Glands.
    Merocrine
  66. Identify the Functional Classification of the Exocrine Glands.
    Aporcrine.
  67. What are the 3 Functional Classification of the Exocrine Glands.
    • Apocrione
    • Mesocrine
    • Holocrine
  68. What is the most abundant and widely distributed tissues in the body?
    Connective Tissue
  69. What are a few functions of connective tissue?
    • Binds tissues together
    • Supports and strengthen tissue
    • Protects and insulates internal organs
    • Compartmentalize and transport
    • Energy reserves and immune responses
  70. True or False
    Cells touch due to the presence of extracellular matrix
    • False.
    • Cells rarely touch due to the presence of extracellular matrix
  71. Describe the Matrix present in connective tissue.
    Protein fibers & ground substance secreted by the cells
  72. Is connective tissue avascular or vascular?
    Vascular with the exception of cartilage & tendons.
  73. Define the tissue type.
    This is an example of connective tissue.
  74. In connective tissue this supports the cells and fibers
    Ground substance.
  75. What helps determine the consistency of the matrix
    Ground stubstance
  76. True or False
    Ground substance contains no large molecules.
    False. Ground Substance contains many large molecules
  77. Where would you redily find Hyaluronic acid Condroitin?
    Cartilige.
  78. What are 3 Types of Connective Tissue Fibers?
    • Collagen
    • Elastin
    • Reticular
  79. Describe Collagen
    • tough, resistant to pull, yet pliable
    • formed from the protein collagen, 25% of the protein in your body
  80. Describe Elastin
    • smaller diameter fibers formed from the protein elastin
    • can stretch up to 150% of relaxed length and return to its original shape
  81. Describe Reticular
    • thin, branched fibers that form the framework of organs
    • formed from the protein collagen
  82. What do Blast type cells do?
    Retain ability to divide & produce matrix
  83. What are Cyte type cells?
    Mature cell that can not divide or produce matrix
  84. What do Adipocytes do?
    Store fat (triglycerides)
  85. What are the classifications of connective tissues?
    • Embryonic connective tissue
    • Mature connective tissue
  86. What are the types of mature connective tissue?
    • Loose connective tissue e.g.Areolar, adipose, and reticular
    • Dense connective tissue e.g Dense regular, dense irregular, and elastic
    • Cartilage e.g. Hyaline, fibrocartilage, and elastic cartilage
    • Bone tissue
    • Liquid connective tissue e.g. Blood and lymph
  87. Describe Mesenchyme.
    • Embryonic!!
    • Irregularly shaped cells
    • In semifluid ground substance with reticular fibers
    • Gives rise to all other types of connective tissue
  88. Describe ETC Mucous.
    • Star-shaped cells in jelly-like ground substance
    • Found only in the umbilical cord
    • Mucus (Wharton’s Jelly)
  89. What are the classifications of Mature Connective Tissue?
    • Loose Connective Tissue
    • Dense Connective Tissue
    • Cartilage
    • Bone
    • BloodLymph

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