Pharm Chap 9

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vongc2
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68927
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Pharm Chap 9
Updated:
2011-02-25 15:05:35
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Pharm Chap
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Antiepileptic Drugs
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  1. chronic neurological disorder char. by recurrent seizures.
    Epilepsy
  2. Episodes of sudden, transient distrubances in cerebral excitation.
    seizures
  3. Involuntary, paroxsmal skeletal muscle contraction seen during certain seizures.
    Convulsions
  4. propoposed classification scheme of epileptic sezures.
    International league against epilepsy
  5. Effective in generalized tonic-clonic and simple and complex partial siezures.
    Barbiturates- phenobarbital and mephobarbital (Mebaral)
  6. Barbituturates MOA?
    A.R?
    • Increses inhibitory effects of GABA.
    • Inhibits Calcium entry in presynaptic terminals (which decreases glutamate release)

    AR- safe, but use limited b/c of sedation effect
  7. Used to Rx staus epilepticus
    • Benzodiazipines-
    • Diazepam (Valium) and Lorazepam (Ativan)
  8. Treats absence seizures
    Benzodiazipine- Clonazepam (klonopin)
  9. Benzodiazipines MOA?
    A.R.?
    • Potentiates GABA
    • AR-Sedation ataxia and behavioral changes
  10. Effective in treating partial and generalized tonic clonic seizures.
    Hydantoin- Phenytoin (Dilantin)
  11. Hydantoins MOA?
    AR.-? (5)
    • MOA- decreases excitability by decreasing sodium entry into rapidly firing neurons.
    • AR- GI irritation, confusion, sedation, dizziness, head ache
  12. 1. Effective in treating all epilepsy except absence seizures.
    2. Primary agent for treating partial and tonic-clonic seizures.
    Iminostilbenes- Carbazepine (Tegretol); equivalent to phenytoin.
  13. Iminostilbenes MOA?
    AR-?
    • MOA- decreases excitability by decreasing sodium entry into rapidly firing neurons.
    • also inhibits presynaptic uptake and relase of norepi.
    • AR-water retention
  14. Primary agent in treatment of Absence seizures.
    Succinimides- Ethosuximide (Zarontin)
  15. 1. Increases seizure threshold and limits spreads of electrical activity in brain.
    2. May decrase calcium influx.
    Succinimides
  16. 1. Classified as Carboxylic acid
    2. treats absence seizures and bipolar disorder.
    Valproic Acid- Depakote
  17. MOA of Valproic acid?
    AR-?
    • Increases Gaba levels in the brain
    • May increase K+ and efflux (hyperpolarizes, thus decreasing excitability).
    • May limit Na+ entry into rapidly firing Neurons.
    • AR- Hair loss, GI distress- weight gain/loss
  18. Felbamate used for?
    MOA?
    AR-?
    • Parital seizures in adults and children; absence seizures in children
    • MOA- blocks effects of excitatory aa's in brain
    • AR- aplastic anemia and liver failure
  19. Gabapentin (Neurontin) is used for?
    GABA agonist or antagonist?
    • Parital seizures in adults and children
    • GABA Agonist
  20. Lamotrigine (Lamictal) is used for?
    MOA?
    • Partial siezures
    • MOA- Stabalizes Na+ entry in rapidly firing neurons.
  21. Levetiracetam (Keppra) is used for?
    MOA?
    AR-?
    • Partial seizures
    • MOA- Unknown
    • AR- Sedation, dizziness, and weakness
  22. Tiagabine (Gabitril) is used for?
    MOA?
    AR-
    • Parital seizures
    • Inhibits reuptake of GABA (stays in cleft longer)
    • AR- psychiatric distrubances
  23. Topiramate (Topamax) is used for?
    MOA? (3)
    • Parital Seizures
    • inhibits NA+ channel opening
    • blocks excitatory aa receptors,
    • stimulates GABA receptors
  24. Zonisamide (Zonegran) is used for?
    MOA?
    AR?
    • Partial seizures
    • Stabalizes Na+ channels (limits Na+ entry into rapidly firing neurons)
    • AR- loss of appetitie
  25. Felbamate aka?
    felbatol
  26. Gabapentin aka?
    Neurontin
  27. Lamotrigine aka?
    Lamictal
  28. Levetiracetam aka?
    Keppra
  29. Tiagabine aka?
    Gabitril
  30. Topiramate aka?
    Topamax
  31. Zonisamide aka?
    Zonegran

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