Micro Ch 10,11,12

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cswett
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68959
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Micro Ch 10,11,12
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2011-03-11 22:36:10
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Microbiology Classification microbes
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Worksheet questions from chap 10, 11, 12 on the classification of microbes
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  1. Taxonomy
    Phylogeny
    Ontogeny
    Taxonomy = the science of classification

    Phylogeny = the evolutionary history of an organism

    Ontogeny = the study of the anatomic development of an individual
  2. Clone
    Strain
    Clone - a population of cells derived froma single parent cell - all cells in the clone are identical

    Strain - genetically different cell populations withing a species - strains with different Ags are called serotypes
  3. Name the 3 domains
    Name the 4 eukaryotic kingdons
    • 1. Bacteria - Prokaryotic
    • 2. Archaea - Prokaryotic
    • 3. Eukaryotes

    • Kingdons:
    • 1. Plant
    • 2. Animal
    • 3. Fungi
    • 4. Protists
  4. What is serologic testing?
    Serology - the study of blood serum (plasma - fibringoens) and immune responses that are evident in the serum.

    • Serologic testing for bacteria is used to differentiate bacterial species and strains
    • - serologic testing can also be used to diagnose bacterial infections in hosts - the unknown Abs will react with the known Abs = diagnosis

    Known antiserum (serum that has been exposed to known bacteria and has Ab for it) + unknown bacterium = slide agglutination (clumping of cells on the slide)
  5. Rickettsia
    • -Gram (-) rods - coccobacilli
    • -obliage intracellular parasites - can only reproduce in a cell - need cell cultures to grow them - cause WBCs to pagocytose them and them begin reproducing.

    • Both deseases listed below are:
    • - zoonotic - carried by animals
    • - transmitted by insects
    • - rats (reservoir) → ticks/fleas (vector) → human

    • R. typhi - typhus - severe flu-like Sx - high fever, cough, chills, myalgia (muscle pain)
    • - 50% death rate w/o Rx
    • Rx = Tetracyclines

    • R. richettsii - Rocky mountain spotted fever
    • - flu-like Sx, fever & spotted rash
    • - Tick is resevoir and vector
    • Rx = Tetracyclines
  6. Brucella
    • gram (-) coccobacilli
    • zoonotic - not contageous - acquired by eating infected meat (cows/ goats/ sheep) or touching animals

    • Brucellosis - flu-like Sx - fever, chills, headache, myalgia (cronic illness-month, years)
    • Rx = antibiotics
  7. Bordetella
    Gram (-) rods

    • B. pertussis - whooping cough
    • flu-like Sx with violent, barking cough
    • - contageous - spread by cough - DPT vaccine - not common in US
    • Rx = antibiotics
  8. Neisseria
    • Gram (-) cocci
    • -fimbriae for attachment to mucous membranes

    • N. Meningitidis - meningicoccal meningitis - medical emergency - contageous - vaccine for it
    • - severe fatigue, fever, stiff neck, 10% die w/Rx
    • -speads through saliva - 40% carry it in nasopharynx

    • N. gonorrhoeae -Gonorrhea - urethritis - STD
    • - resistant to penicillin
    • - purulent (pus) discharge with urination
    • - PID (in females) - pelvic inflammatory disease
  9. Pseudomonas
    • gram (-) rods or cocci - opportunistic pathogens
    • - aerobic and anaerobic soil organisms
    • -resistant to antibiotics - have porin in outer membrane to prevent antibiotic influx and efflux pumps to pump out bacteria
    • - nosocomial infections (hospital acquired) - biofilms on catheters, burn patients, wound infections, UTI
  10. Legionella
    • -gram (-) bacillus
    • -found in streams, water pipes, air conditioner units
    • Legionnaire's Disease - (77) severe pneumonia
    • - 15% mortality rate (50% if in the hopital and sick)
    • -spread by inhaliation of infected aerosol

    Rx = antibiotics
  11. Vibro cholera
    • gram (-)curved rods - toxin
    • - Cholera
    • - infects small bowel - massive diarrhea (1 lt/ hr)
    • - death by dehydration - toxin causes increased pumping of Na+ into Gi tract (H20 follows)
    • - transmitted by eating raw oysters & indercooked shellfish

    Rx = rehydration + antibiotics
  12. Esherichia
    • gram (-) rods - enteric (intestinal bacteria) - have fimbrae to adhere to bowel
    • -sex pili -transfer resistance factors
    • -anaerobic - ferment glucose

    • E. coli - most common GI bug
    • - normals GI flora - usually not pathogenic
    • - UTI in females (not males)
    • - certain strains cause bloody diarrhea, traveler's diarrhea, and food poisoning
    • - spread by fecal to oral contamination
  13. Salmonella
    • gram (-) rods - enteric (intestinal bacteria) of poultry/ cattle
    • - have fimbrae to adhere to bowel-sex pili -transfer resistance factors-anaerobic - ferment glucose

    • -ALL are pathogenic (not normal flora)
    • - entero colitis - severe diarrhea
    • Rx - rehydration - antibiotics not necessary unless severe

    • S. typhi - typhoid fever
    • -high fever (104)
    • - diarrhia
    • - rash
    • -rare in US
    • - from contaminated food

    Rx = antibiotics & rehydration
  14. Shigella
    • gram (-) rods - enteric (intestinal bacteria)
    • -have fimbrae to adhere to bowel-
    • sex pili -transfer resistance factors
    • -anaerobic - ferment glucose

    • Shigellosis - dysentery: gastro enteritis (diarhhea and vomiting)
    • -travelers diarrhea - poor hygene, food/ water contamination - spread feces to hand to mouth
  15. Klebsiella
    • gram (-) enterobacteria - lives in intestine
    • - causes pneumonia - sometimes serious
    • -found in soil/ water
  16. Serratia
    gram (-) enteric bacteria - lives in intestines

    • S. marcescens - nasocomial (hospital acquired)
    • UTIs, catheter infections
  17. Proteus
    • gram (-) enteric bacteria (lives in intestine)
    • common cause of UTIs and wound infections
    • swarming growth - concentric rings in culture plate
  18. Enterobacter
    • Enteric bacteria (intestinal, gram (-) rods
    • - common cause of UTI and nosocomial infections
    • - common in sewage, soil, water, humans, animals
  19. Haemophilus
    • gram (-)
    • named for its blood requirement in growth culture
    • inhabit mucous membranes of upper respitory tract, mouth, vagina, and intestinal tract.
    • -vaccine

    • H. influenzae - does not cause the flu which is a virus
    • - meningitis
    • -otitis media (ear ache)
    • - epiglottitis - life threatening in small children
    • - bronchitis
    • - pheumonia
  20. Heliobacter
    gram (-) curved rods with multiple flagella

    • H. pylori - cause of peptic (gastric acid related) ulcers
    • - survives stomach acid -most people (80%) are asymptomatic
    • - able to corkscrew through mucous and bore hole in stomach lining
    • - can cause stomach cancer

    • Rx = kill bacteria with antibiotics (ampicillin & flagyl)
    • + drugs to lower stomach acid
  21. Clostridium
    • Gram (+) rods
    • Obligate anerobes
    • Forms endospores (can live up to 40 years)

    • C. tetani - tetanus - neurotoxins -toxins block nerve conduction to muscle (stop breathing) - starts as puncture wound
    • DPT vaccine/ booster
    • Rx = vent + antibiotics + anti-toxin

    • C. botulism - botulism - respiratory failure (toxin = no ACh release - muscle paralysis) from improperly or old canned food
    • honey - (toxin affects infants only)
    • Rx= vent + antibiotics + anti-toxin

    • C. perfringens - gas gangrene - (CO2) tissue nectrosis (dead)
    • Rx = antibiotics + debrindement of dead tissue

    • C. difficile - pseudomembranous colitis = severe diarrhea - AAD = antibiotic associated diarrhea
    • occurs only when antibiotic therapy alters normal intestinal flora
    • Dx = detect toxin (not the bacteria)
  22. Bacillus
    • gram (+) rods - produce endospores
    • facultative anaerobes - common in soil - only a few are pathogenic to humans - several produce antibiotics

    • B. anthrax - sheep/ cattle disease- can be transmitted to humans
    • 1. cutaneous (skin) - endospores
    • 2. inhalation (lung)
    • 3. GI (ingestion)
    • 20% mortality rate if Rx
    • Rx = antibiotics, vaccine
  23. Staphylococcus
    • gram (+) cocci - grapelike clusters
    • facultative anaerobes
  24. S. aureus - named for yellow pigmented colonies (aureus= golden)
    • releases toxins that increase its ability to invade & cause disease
    • -pathogenic - meningitis, food poisoning, "enterotoxin", pheumonia, wound infection (surgical), inpetigo (skin infection)
    • -many resistant strains -MRSA (skin abscess)
    • Toxic shock syndrome - fever, shock, death (tampons, nasal packing)
  25. Streptococcus
    • gram (+) cocci chains
    • Many diseases - more than any other group of bacteria

    B-hemolytic = lyses RBCs, on culture plates

    • Strep pyogenes - scarlet fever
    • - pharyngitis "strep throat"
    • - erysipelas = skin cellulitis
    • - impetigo - like staph
    • - rheumatic fever (from strep throat) → rheumatic heart disease (mitral stenosis, aortic stenosis)

    Strep pneumonia - pneumococcal pneumonia (vaccine)

    Strep viridans & Strep mutans - dental - broken away can cause endocarditis
  26. Enterococcus fecalis
    gram (+) cocci (not gram(-) rod like other enterobacteria

    • anaerobes - in GI system normally (normal microbiota)
    • facultative anaerobe
    • resistant to many antibiotics
    • nosocomial infections, UTI's
  27. Mycoplasma
    • gram (+) -NO CELL WALL -so not affected by many antibiotics
    • Pleomorshic some forms have filaments that make them look like fungus (Myco)
    • smallest self-replicating organism (tiny 0.1 nanometer)

    • M. pneumoniae
    • causes "walking" pneumonia (mild & common)
  28. Mycobacterium
    • not gram (-) or (+) - branching fungus-like filaments (myco)
    • aerobic - live in lung (TB)
    • "acid fast" mycolic acid in cell wall - few antibiotics penetrate it
    • grow slowly - nutrients cross cell wall slowly

    M. tuberculosis - chronic pheumonia

    M. leprosy - disfiguring skin lesions
  29. Corynebacterium
    • not gram (+) or (-)
    • diptheria
    • droplet/ aerosol - upper respiratory illness that can cause myocarditis
    • vaccine for it - DPT - diptheria, pertussis, tetanus
  30. Chlamydia
    • not gram (+) or (-)
    • obligate intracellular bug (cant make ATP)
    • Most common bacterial STD
    • PID - uterine/ tube scarring = infertility

    • C. trachomatis -conjunctivitis in newborns (can lead to blindness) - silver nitrate drops at birth
    • -can cross placenta

    C. pneumoniae - walking pneumoniae
  31. Spirochetes
    not gram (+) or (-)

    • Treponema pallidum - syphilis
    • Dangerous SDI- crosses placenta
    • 1. Primary - genital (skin chancre)
    • 2. Secondary (months later) - flu-like Sx
    • 3. Tertiary (years later) - insanity, aortic disease, valvular heart disease

    • Borrelia burgdorferi - Lyme disease
    • rash, flu, arthralgia
    • vector = deer tick (depends on deer blood but deer does not become infected)
  32. Fungus
    Mycology
    • Eukaryotic - antibiotics dont work on them
    • - Aerobic or facultative anaerobic
    • - Chemoheterotrophs (like man )
    • - most are decomposers

    Mycology = study of fungus

    Mycosis = fungal infections - most grow slowly and are chronic
  33. Systemic mycoses (fungal infections)
    • live deep within body - pheumonia
    • inhaled - mostly in immune compromised
    • regional
    • a. coccidioidomycosis - west coast
    • b. histoplasmosis - mid states
    • c. blastomycosis - east coast
  34. Cutaneous mycoses
    Dermatophytes - localized fungal infections - infect hair and nails - feed on keratin (ringworm)
  35. Opportunistic mycoses
    • fungal infections
    • generally harmless but can be pathogenic to ppl with compormised immune systems, treated with antibiotics, and lung disease.

    Pneumocystis carini - AIDS defining disease - pneumonoa

    Candida albicans - YEAST - vaginitis, thrush
  36. Protozoa
    • eukaryotes - unicellular - chemoheterotrophs
    • asexual reprodiction (fission/budding) & sexual (conjugation)
    • flagellated parasites

    Trichomonas vaginalis - STD - vaginitis/ Urethritis, increased risk of HIV

    Giardia lamblia - beaver fever - feces in stream, campers drink H20, diarrhea (stays in GI tract)

    • Plasmodium - Malaria - fever chills, hemolytic anemia - common in tropics
    • - mosquito is vector (female bite only) → host liver cells → RBCs → RBC lysis
    • - intercellular paracytes - live in RBCs
    • Rx = quinine

    • Toxoplasma gondii - toxoplasmosis - significant in developing fetus and immune suppressed
    • -eggs shed in cat feces - crosses placenta - fetal demise, brain damage
    • - also acquired from eating undercooked meat
  37. Helminths
    • Parasitic Worms
    • eukaryotic multicellular animals - chemoheterotrophs
    • tapeworms, liverflukes, schistosomiasis "snail fever" (chronic condition)

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