Juvenile Delinquency

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Author:
gce2
ID:
68971
Filename:
Juvenile Delinquency
Updated:
2011-03-01 13:27:03
Tags:
Choice Theory
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Description:
Choice Theory
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  1. Axiom


    The Axiom of free will
    Human beings have free will...we can make choices

    Criminal justice system is founded on the fact that human being have free will
  2. Human behavior is motivated by TWO fundamental forces
    • Desire to seek pleasure (benefits)
    • Desire or need to avoid pain
  3. TWO elements that make up all criminal behavior
    An act (Actus rayus) in ItaliaYou have to actually do somethingMensrea: you need a mental decision that is wrong (i.e. Drive care...hit ice….kill person…an act BUT not intended)
  4. Choice Theorist believe juveniles commit crime because...
    because they believe that committing the crime will lead to some sort of pleasure or benefit
  5. How to fix criminal behavoir
    • Give punishment: Reeducate them that this crime will lead to pain
    • The more severe the punishment the more effective it is in detouring criminal behavior
  6. THREE elements of effective punishment
    • Severity
    • Certainty (**most important**): Want them to associate crime with being punished

    Swiftness

    S.C.S...like S.O.S


    Human limitation: There are other values. We are not all about catching criminals…we have “Do process”.
  7. Deterrents and criticism
    Holding back criminal acts


    Imperfect: Sometimes it works and sometimes it doesn’t


    • Critisism: There is a lack of statistical support that shows that punishment do not worked
    • **There is no way to record when someone deters from doing a crime…no crime is committed so how would we know?
  8. Trait Theory: Positivism
    Uncontrollable (Keyword), psychological or physical trait combined with environmental stressors causes delinquency

    Free will: They don’t believe in it (uncontrollable) when environmental triggers are present
  9. How to fix Positivism
    Fix it by: Treatment NOT punishment because they are victims with uncontrollable traits
  10. Power of Belief:
    Self proclaimed prophecy: **Belief Shapes Behavior**
  11. Problems with Power of Belief

    Treatment
    By telling someone they have an uncontrollable trait your removing the idea they can stop which can induce criminal acts and is not empowering


    • Treatment: Key is that the person need o be motivated to change…motivated because of pain
    • If you are selling drugs and making money but put into treatment there is no motivation to change because there is no pain.
  12. Biological Trait Theory
    Not given a lot of credit in juvenile court
  13. Ceaser Lumbroso
    Part of Biological theory: (Criminal activism): criminal a throwbacks to a more primitive stages of humans…went into jails to experiment
  14. Twin Studies
    • In Biological Theory
    • : show fundamental similarities of behaviors even when growing up away from each other
  15. Learning Disabilities and I.Q
    More fruitful than geneticsPeople that commit crimes have disproportionate amount of learning disabilities
  16. TWO Branches of Psychological Theory
    Freudian (psychodynamic theory)

    Behavioral
  17. Psychological problem:
    A maladaptive thought and behavior pattern. Originated as an adaptive thought and behavior
  18. Freudian Theory
    THREE components that make up personality and THREE stages of development

    Id: original component of mind. Seeks pleasure and drive for all behavior

    Ego: sense of self apart from others: how we see ourselves (moderates both systems)

    Superego: moral code...internalization of what is right and wrong

    THREE stages of development

    Oral: Main reality for a baby is stimulation to mouth

    Anal: Have some words but being trained to conform (potty training)

    Phallic: Genitals stimulation

    If some trauma happens during one of these phases they have problems during rest of life (Anal retentive: over controlling )
  19. According to Freud a child’s first six years is...
    most important so a Freudian would say a criminal is ID dominated
  20. Behavioral psychology
    A personal personality is shaped by positive and negative reinforcements

    Behavior that is praised is increased

    Behavior that is negatively reinforced is reduced

    Not just what we experience but what we witness

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