Dorsum Musculature of your foot consists of what 2 muscles? (muscles on top of your foot)
Extensor digitorum brevis (extends the toes of II, III, IV) & Extensor hallucis brevis (extends the BIG toe)
Both innerv. by Deep fibular N.
What artery supplies blood to the dorsum of your foot?
Terminal branches of the Anterior Tibial A. supplies
-Dorsalis pedis (dorsal artery of the foot)
-Lateral Tarsal artery
The Lateral Tarsal Artery unites to form what?
the Arcuate Artery (an arch) and it gives metatarsal arteries and dorsal digital arteries.
also forms of the 1st Dorsal Metatarsal Artery (only properly named artery)
Clinical:An absent Dorsalis Pedis exhibits what signs?
The 5 "P SIGNS"-pain, pallor, paresthesia (pins and needles), paralysis, pulselessness.
What is the function of the Plantar Fascia (plantar aponeurosis) think of your hand!
Plantar aponeurosis holds the parts of the foot together, protects the plantar surface from injury and supports longitudinal arches
The plantar fascia arises from what and divides into?
Arises from the calcaneus, divides into 5 bands (comon 5 digits!) attaches to fibrous digital sheaths
Vertical septa of the plantar aponeurosis that divides the foot into what?
3 vertical septa divide the foot into 3 compartments, medial, central and later plantar fascia
Clinical: Pain on the plantar aspect of the heel and medial aspect of the foot is what? Pain is worse in the AM.
Plantar fasciitis "flip flop disease"
-Pt presents with the most pain in the AM
-Indicates the Pt needs to change their tennis shoes due to a lack of support of the arches
Clinical: Bursa or Bursitis on the medial side of the calcaneus idicates what condition?
"Heel Spur" syndrome, a calcaneal spur on the medial side of the calcaneus
What is the function of the plantar musculature?
4 layers of muscles that function to help maintain the arches of the foot and stand on even ground.
The lumbricals of your foot:
Part of your Second Layer of your foot!
The BYE BYE muscles of your foot
: tendons of FDL
Insert: Extensor expansions of lat. 4 digits
Innerv: medial: Medial plantar N. lateral 3: Lateral plantar n.
Action: Flex proximal phalanges, extend middle and distal phalanges of lateral 4 digits
Flexor hallucis brevis
Part of the second layer of your plantar muscles!
Origin: Plantar surfaces of cuboid and lat. cuneiform
Insert: Both sides of proximal phalanx of 1st digit
Innerv: Medial plantar n.
Action: flexes the proximal phalanx of 1st digit
Part of the third layer of your plantar muscles!
Origin: oblique: bases of 2-4 MT
Transverse: plantar MTP ligaments
Insert: proximal phalanx of 1st digit
Innerv: Deep branch of Lateral plantar n.
: Adducts 1st digit
Flexor digiti minimi brevis
Part of the third layer of your plantar muscles!
Origin: Base of 5th MT
Insert: Proximal phalanx of 5th digit (pink toe!)
Innerv: Superficial branch of lateral plantar nerve
Action: flexes proximal phalanx of 5th digit
Interossei (dorsal shown below)
Deepest layer (4th layer) of plantar musculature!
Just like in the hands:
"PAD & DAB"
3 plantar interossei (adduct towards 2nd toe)
4 dorsal interossei (abduct)
Also weakly flex MTP jts.
Innerv: ALL by Lateral plantar nerve
Nerves of the foot?
-->Tibial Nerve divides into:
Medial Plantar N. (4 muscles)
Lateral Plantar N. (6 muscles)
Intrinsic muscles of the foot
-->Deep Fibular Nerve
Supplies the extensor digitorum brevis m
Cutaneous innervation is supplied by 7 nerves
Cutaneous innervation of plantar surface of foot?
Dermatomes and Cutaneous Innervation of Lower Limb
Cutaneous Innerv of Lower Limb
Clinical: Sharp pain radiating into the arch of the foot, heal and sometimes toes, paresthesia, what is this condition and what is it caused by?
Tarsal tunnel syndrom (TTS) or "Jogger's Foot"Presents with tendonitis and could compress tibial nerve
Caused by repetitive eversion of the foot, like during running
Due to entrapment of the Medial Plantar Nerve
What does the Plantar Reflex test?
tests for "Babinski sign", indicates brain injury or cerebral diseaseTests: L4, L5, S1, S2
**cannot do in infants: due to not fully developed corticospinal tracts
A 25 yr old female came to you after medially spraining her ankle while running last week. She complains of tingling in the sole of her foot and has diminished movements of her big toe and medial 3.5 digits. What nerve has been injured?
Medial Plantar Nerve
Look at cutaneous innervation of plantar surface of foot if you're confused!
Venous Drainage of your foot:
Dorsum: Dorsal digital v. → Dorsal metatarsal v. → Dorsal venous arch → plantar venous arch
Sole: Plantar venous network → Med. & Lat. Marginal v.
**Medial Drainage: Great Saphenous V.
**Lateral Drainage: Small Saphenous V.
Medial venous drainage of your foot feed into what vein?
Great Saphenous V
Lateral venous drainage of your foot feed into what vein?
Small Saphenous V
Medial lymphatic Drainage of you foot (test question on this know this!)
Follows the Great Saphenous Vein
–Medial side of foot → follows Gr. Saphenous v. → Superficial inguinal l.n.
(vertical group) → (Deep inguinal l.n.
→) External iliac l.n.
Lateral lymphatic Drainage of you foot (test question on this know this!)
Small Saphenous vein
side of foot → follows Small saphenous v. → Popliteal l.n. →
Deep inguinal l.n. →
External iliac l.n.
Medical imaging technique used to visualize the lymphatics (lymph nodes, capillaries, tissues)