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First line measure to prevent/treat atelectasis
Closure or collapse of alveoli
Medications that suppress the cough reflux
Most accurate measurement of concentration of oxygen in the
ABG-Arterial Blood Gas
Max volume of air exhaled from the point of max inspiration
Coughing up blood
What is copious green sputum indicative of?
First line of defense to prevent spreading disease
Wash your hands
What is the normal range for blood pH?
What is the normal range for CO2 in the blood?
Normal range for bi-carb (HCO3) ion the blood
Respiratory or Metabolic
pH increases & CO2 decreased
pH decrease & CO2 increase
Respiratory (opposite pH to CO2)
Respiratory or Metabolic
pH increases & HCO3 increased
pH decrease & HCO3 decreased
Metabolic (equal pH to HCO3)
Difficult/labored breathing when recumbent (relieved by upright position)
Low grade fever, night sweats, fatigue, and weight loss is symptoms of…
Chronic inflammatory disease of the airway
Chronic hyperinflation of lungs r/t emphysema
Fever, muscle aches, sore throat, ill looking is symptoms of…
- Block action of histamine
- Decrease secretions & edema
- Diphenhydramine (Benadryl)
- Fexofenadine (Allegra)
- Loratadine (Claritin)
- Shrink engorged nasal mucous membranes
- Relieve nasal stuffiness
What might happen if nasal decongestant is used more then 3 days?
Main nursing dx for respiratory problems
- Ineffective airway clearance (maintain patent airway)
- Ineffective gas exchange (cough deep breathe)
- Acute pain (promote comfort)
- Impaired verbal communication
- Deficient fluid volume
- Knowledge deficit
- Inflammation of the lung parenchyma caused by various microorganisms
- Pleuritic chest pain(cough/breathing)
- Tachypnea/tachycardiaCough w/ sputum
What is best position for Orthopnea?
Upright sitting position slightly leaning forward
In what case is antitussives contraindicated?
When pt. has a compromised cough reflex
Care of a pt. with pneumonia?
Upon admission place head of bed 45-90 degree angle.
What meds are given for pneumonia?
- Antibiotics (broad spectrum before culture results)
Group of common chronic respiratory disorders characterized by progressive tissue degeneration & obstruction of airways
What kind of mask would the nurse choose for COPD pt.?
What is “spoon shaped” nails characteristic of?
What is the normal amount of insensible perspiration?
600mL per day
What kind of precautions should pt. with Impetigo be on?
What are two anti-viral medications used to treat Shingles?
- **Acyclovir (Zovirax)**
- Valacyclovir (Valtrex)
- If used within 24 hr from first outbreak reduces spread/severity of symptoms
Topical treatment for symptoms of Herpes Zoster (shingles)
- Calamine lotion
- Baking soda
What are factors is perfusion of oxygen and CO2?
- Pt.s cardiac output
- **Arterial oxygen content (SaO2) pulse oximetry**
- Number of RBC or hematocrit
- Metabolic demands
What does finger clubbing indicate?
Chronic hypoxic conditions
Upon auscultation of lungs, what does dullness indicate?
Fluid in the plural space
Treatment of common cold
After 7-10 days of cont. symptoms, perform strep test
Nursing implications for tonsillectomy
- Because bleeding is largest risk…
- Assess frequent swallowing
- Vital signs (s/s of bleeding)
What is the definitive test for Tuberculosis?
PPD (purified protein derivative)
Proper use of Metered Dose Inhaler
Position 1-2 inches from open mouth
Teaching plan for asthma regarding medication
Take as scheduled
3 types of wound dressings
Describe interactive wound dressing
- Absorbs exudates
- moist in center of wound
- dry on edges (wet-to-dry)
Contact dermatitis and treatment
- An allergic reaction (chem., physical, biologic, irritant)
- Remove offending agent
- Non-medicated lotion
- Cool wet dressing
Changes in skin from Psoriasis
- Thickening of the dermis and the epidermis (scaly plaques)
- Cellular hyperproliferation
- Altered differentiationInflammation
2 types of Glaucoma
- Open angle-most common
- Angle closure
Nursing teaching for administering of Timolol (eye medicine for glaucoma)
Can cause systemic response (low BP/P) so block lacrimal canal
- Only cure is surgical removal
- Post op.:
- Eye drops
- Activity restrictions
- HOB >30 degrees
- Report new floaters and flashers to Dr
Can easily spread from one eye to another (very contagious)
Post-op care of eye surgery
- Activity restriction
- Bed rest
- Head turned, affected side up
- Sit upright with head over bed table until 1st dressing change
Macular Degeneration 2 types
- Atrophic dry type – progressive-most common
- Exudative wet type- rapid progression- *cause legal blindness*
Sensation the individual is moving rather than the environment. Increased risk for falls.
Sensation of movement of environment, episodic, worsens with movement. Increased risk for falls.
Uncontrolled eye movements. Increased risk for falls. Mike’s googly-eyes
Abnormality of inner ear which leads to hearing loss and vertigo
Underlying disorder causing hearing loss
Hearing loss caused by medications r/t adverse effects.
How to communicate effectively with a person with a hearing disorder
- Face the hearing impaired
- Speak normal pace and tone (for lip reading)
- Reduce noise and distractions
- Keep mouth clear from distractions (hand, paper, etc)