Science - Ch 9

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Anonymous
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69080
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Science - Ch 9
Updated:
2011-02-26 15:06:21
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Plant
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Plant Kingdom
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  1. Features
    • A) Cell Wall
    • B) Many Celled
    • C) Immobile
    • D) Eukaryotic
    • E) Have Chlorophyll/Chloroplasts
    • F) Have a Cuticle
  2. Cell Wall
    • F*protects and supports
    • *made up of cellulose
    • -is an organic compound (Carbon>sugars)
    • -is a carbohydrate ("Fiber Food")
    • -people cannot digest it
  3. Many Celled
    • *allows cell to develop tissues, etc.
    • -plants considered complex organisms
    • *algaes>simple>only cells>protists
  4. Have Chlorophyll/Chloroplasts
    *can make own food...do photosynthesis
  5. Have a Cuticle
    • *waxy, protective coat
    • *mostly found on top side of leaves
    • F* prevents or slows down water loss
  6. Plant Groups
    • A) Non-Vascular Plants
    • B) Vascular Plants
  7. Non-Vascular Plants
    • *do not have tubes (tissue) inside plant
    • *no "true" roots, stems, or leaves
  8. Vascular Plants
    • *have tubes (tissue) inside plant
    • *has "true" roots, stems, and leaves
  9. Plant History/Origin
    • *are about 300,000 different plant species
    • *scientific evidence that plants originated from algal protists
    • *oldest plant fossil--420 m.y.a.
    • *oldest cone-bearing fossil (pine trees)--350 m.y.a.
    • *oldest flowering plant fossil--120 m.y.a.
    • *not very much fossil evidence from plants because of decay
    • *plant kingdoms have divisions (replaces phylum)
  10. Plant Classification
    • A) Bryophytes
    • B) Seedless Vascular Plants
    • C) Seed Plants
  11. Bryophytes
    • *are simplest plant division
    • why?*are non-vascular
    • *live in shady, damp areas
    • *have rhizoids
    • -root-like structures
    • F-anchor plants and absorb water
    • *reproduce using spores
    • *excellent pioneer species
    • -first to grow in a new or disturbed area
    • *limited in size due to being non-vascular
  12. Bryophyte Examples
    • A) Moss
    • B) Liverwort
    • C) Hornwort
  13. Moss
    *resemble tiny pine trees
  14. Liverwort
    • *flat leaf-like bodies
    • *"herb for liver"
  15. Hornwort
    • *only one chloroplast per cell
    • *small in size
  16. Seedless Vascular Plants
    • *reproduces using spores
    • *have vascular tissue
  17. 4 Types of Seedless Vascular Plants
    • 1) Ground Pines
    • 2) Horsetails
    • 3) Spike Moss
    • 4) Ferns
  18. Ground Pines
    • *live in arctic to tropic areas
    • *endangered in some areas (wreaths)
  19. Horsetails
    • *hollow center
    • *have silica (sand)
    • *very gritty
    • *used for sharpening and scouring pads
  20. Spike Moss
    • *live in desert (resurrection plant)
    • *recycles water
  21. Ferns
    • *largest group of seedless vascular plants
    • *have become present day coal
    • -formed from bogs/swamps
    • --allowed for slow decay into coal
    • *have rhizome - underground stems
    • *have fronds - fern leaves
    • *have sori - spore producing
    • -found on underside of leaf
  22. Importance/Use of Seedless Plants
    • 1) House Plants
    • 2) Peat
    • 3) Pioneer Species
    • 4) Food Source
    • 5) Folk Lore Medicines
  23. Peat
    • *low grade coal
    • *very wet and dirty
    • *not much carbon (50%)
    • *future coal??
  24. Seed Plants
    • *an embryo with stored food
    • -a young plant
    • *the reproductive part of seed plants
    • *surrounded by a seed coat
  25. 2 Major Groups of Seed Plants
    • A) Gymnosperms
    • B) Angiosperms
  26. Gymnosperms
    • *seed plants with exposed seeds
    • *means "naked seed"
    • *there is no fruit or other covering around the seed
    • *leaves are mostly needles or flat scales
    • *cone - the reproductive part of gymnosperms that produces seeds
  27. 2 Main Uses of Gymnosperms
    • 1) Big lumber supply
    • 2) Makes soaps, paints, varnish from resin
  28. 4 Divisions of Gymnosperms
    • 1) Conifers
    • 2) Ginkgoes
    • 3) Cycads
    • 4) Gnetophytes
  29. Conifers
    • *largest division
    • *ex: fir, spruce, cedar, pine
    • *known as "evergreens"
    • *keeps their needles year round
    • *has cuticle - waxy coating
    • F-prevents water loss and energy loss
    • *allows gymnosperms to grow better in cooler climates
  30. Ginkgoes
    • *flat shaped leaves that fall off in the fall
    • *produce berry-like cones
    • *highly resistant to smog so they grow in inner cities
  31. Cycads
    *resemble palm trees, but produce cones
  32. Gnetophytes
    *desert growing
  33. Angiosperms
    • *seed plants with seeds covered by fruit
    • *reproductive organ is the flower
    • *have cotyledons
    • -divides angiosperms into 2 groups
    • -is a seed leaf with stored food
  34. 2 Groups of Angiosperms
    • 1) Monocots
    • 2) Dicots
  35. Monocots
    • *leaves have parallel veins
    • *xylem and phloem are scattered in stem
    • *flower parts/petals in groups/multiples of 3
  36. Dicots
    • *leaves have branched veins
    • *xylem and phloem are in rings in stem
    • *flower parts are in groups of 4 or 5/multiples of 4 or 5
  37. Roots
    • *have more length than all of the above ground parts
    • F*anchor
    • F*absorb water/minerals
    • *some contain stored food>carrot
    • *some carry out photosynthesis
  38. 3 Parts to a Root
    • A) Root Cap
    • B) Root Tip
    • C) Root Hair
  39. Root Cap
    *protects
  40. Root Tip
    *grows
  41. Root Hair
    • *absorbs water
    • *increases surface area
  42. 2 Types of Roots
    • 1) Tap Root
    • 2) Fibrous Root
  43. Tap Root
    • *one main root
    • *ex: carrot
  44. Fibrous Root
    • *many branched roots
    • *corn
  45. Stems
    • F*support flowers/leaves
    • F*allows movement of food/water because it contains vascular tissue
    • *helps carry out photosynthesis
    • *some contain stored food>potatoes (tuber)/onions (bulb)
  46. 3 Main Types of Vascular Tissue
    • 1) Xylem
    • 2) Phloem
    • 3) Cambium
  47. Xylem
    • *moves water
    • *movement from roots to leaves
  48. Phloem
    • *moves food
    • *movement is from leaves/stem to all other parts of plant to use/store
  49. Cambium
    *makes new xylem (inside)/phloem (outside)
  50. 2 Types of Stems
    • A) Herbaceous
    • B) Woody
  51. Herbaceous Stems
    • *green, soft, flexible
    • *ex: corn, tulip, dandelion
    • *usually annual (one growing period)
  52. Woody Stems
    • *brown, hard, rigid
    • *ex: oak, birch
    • *usually perennial (more than one growing period)
  53. Leaves
    F*photosynthesis>food making process
  54. Leaf Structure
    • 1) Epidermis
    • 2) Stomates
    • 3) Guard Cells
    • 4) Palisade Layer
    • 5) Spongy Layer
  55. Epidermis
    • *protective top/bottom layer
    • *top side has cuticle
  56. Stomates
    • *pores on lower epidermis
    • F*allows materials to enter (energy, carbon dioxide)/ leave (oxygen, water) a leaf
  57. Guard Cells
    • *surround stomates
    • F*control opening and closing of stomates
  58. Palisade Layer
    *contains chloroplasts/chlorophyll
  59. Spongy Layer
    *contains xylem/phloem (vascular tissue)
  60. Botanist
    *studies plants
  61. Ethnobotanist
    *studies relationships between people's culture and plants

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