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Demonstrate understanding of basic oral & dental anatomy & physiology.
- Bone-Hard connective tissue that forms the framwork of the body.
- Anatomic terms that pertain to the bones of the skull:
- Canal-a long tube opening through bone
- Condyle-a rounded surface at the articular end of the bone.
- Foramen-a short opening in a bone or other sturcture.
- Fossa-a pit,hollow or depression in the bone.
- Meatus-an opening or tunnel through the body.
- Process-a distinct projection of bone.
- Septum-a thin bony layer separating two areas such as the nasal cavities.
- Sinus-hollow space or opening a cavity
- Suture-a rigid joint formed between two bones by cartilage or connective tissue or bone.
- Tubercle-rounded elevation on the surface of tissue
What is Cranial, Facial & Hyoid bone?
- Cranial Bones: (8 total bones)
- Ethmoid-single bone
- Frontal-single bone
- Occipital-single bone
- Parietal-paired bones
- Sphenoid-single bone divided into two segments: greater wing and the lesser wing
- Temporal-paired bones
- Facial Bones:(14 total bones)
- Inferior Nasal Conchae-paired bones
- Lacrimal-paired bones
- Mandible-single bone
- Maxilla-paired bones
- Nasal-paired bones
- Vomer-single bone
- Palatine-paired bones
- Zygomatic-paired bones
- Hyoid Bone:
- is an integral aspect of the skull suspended between the mandible and the larynx. It provides support for the tongue and other muscles.Isn't always considered a portion of the skull but its necessary bone to several functions.
- Sutures of the Skull:
- Coronal-union of the partetal,frontal and sphenoid bones.
- Squamosal-union of the temporal and parietal bones.
- Lambdoidal- union of the parietal & occipital bones.
What are Muscles?
Muscles of mastication-
muscles that are responible for facical expression allow movement in the skull.
- Four pairs of muscles:
- Masseter muscle
- Temporal muscle
- Medial pterygoid muscle
- Lateral pterygoid muscle
- Muscles are responsible for chewing, tearing and grinding food. they are attached to the mandible and the upper two thirds of the skull. They provide protrusion, retrusion, elevation & lateral movement of the mandible.
- 4 sets of muscles are paired together to contract allowing movement for the mandible to open/close.
- Functions of muscles of mastication:
- Elevation-moves the mandible up or in closing
- Protrusion-moves the mandible forward
- Retrusion-moves the mandible back
- Depression-lowers or opens the mouth
- Lateral excursion-moves the mandible sideways
- Muscles of Facial Expression:
- movement of the cheeks,lips to reveal emotions, & mastication and speech.
- Muscles Include:
- Orbicularis oris
- Depressors of the lip: mentalis,depressor labii inferiorus,anguli oris and platysma muscles.
- Elevators of the lip: levator labii superioris,anguli oris,zygomaticus major muscles.
- Risorius muscle
- Buccinator muscle
What is Temporomandibular Joint-(TMJ)
- Temporomandibular Joint-(TMJ)-Movement of the mandible. It's the only movalbe joint in the skull,with hinging of the mandible to both temporal bones. The hinged joint allows gliding motion, & hinge
- action. It's attached to the cranium by ligaments.
- It's made up of many structures such as: Mandible, condyle, glenoid or mandibular fossa in the temporal bone. The articular disc or meniscus between the mandibular condyle and the temporal bone.( the articular eminence). glenoid or mandibular fossa.
- Synovial cavities
- Articular capsule