Science - Ch 11

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Author:
Anonymous
ID:
69083
Filename:
Science - Ch 11
Updated:
2011-02-26 15:33:17
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Plant
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Description:
Photosynthesis/Respiration
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  1. Gas Exchange
    • *relates to how a cell gets raw materials (water, carbon dioxide) and releases waste products (oxygen, water)
    • *carbon dioxide enters through the stomates
    • -lower epidermis has more stomates than the upper
    • -more carbon dioxide enters into the spongy layer
    • -guard cells control the opening and closing by:
    • A) Absorbing Water
    • --stomates will open
    • --guard cells swell
    • B) Losing Water
    • --stomates will close
    • --guard cells relax
    • -stomates remain open during the day
    • why?--carbon dioxide allowed to enter so photosynthesis can occur
    • -stomates close at night
    • why?--will not lose as much water and energy
  2. Transpiration
    *loss of water through the stomate
  3. Importance of Photosynthesis
    • 1) Food production for plants
    • 2) Plants remove carbon dioxide from the air and produce oxygen that most organisms need to stay alive
  4. Importance of Respiration
    • 1) Help repair cells, organs, and tissue
    • 2) Growth and reproduction
    • 3) To make cellulose to build cell wall
  5. Photosynthesis Formula
    6CO2 + 6H2O + sunlight energy >>>>> 6O2 + C6H12O6
  6. Respiration Formula
    C6H12O6 + 6O2 >>>>> 6H2O + 6CO2 + energy
  7. Photosynthesis
    *food making in plants
  8. Respiration
    *burning of oxygen/food for energy
  9. Chemical Reactions in Plants
    • 1) Light Dependent
    • 2) Light Independent
  10. Light Dependent Reactions
    • *reactions to photosynthesis that require light
    • *chlorophyll traps light that will be stored in sugar
    • *causes water molecules to split
  11. Light Independent Reactions
    • *reactions to photosyntesis that do not require light
    • *taking in carbon dioxide
    • *makes stored food>glucose
    • *ex: carrots, onions, potatoes
  12. Tropisms
    *plant's reaction to a stimulus
  13. 4 Types of Tropisms
    • 1) Thigmotropism
    • 2) Phototropism
    • 3) Geotropism/Gravitropism
    • 4) Hydrotropism
  14. Thigmotropism
    *plant's response to touch
  15. Phototropism
    *plant's response to light
  16. Geotropism/Gravitropism
    *plant's response to gravity
  17. Hydrotropism
    *plant's response to water
  18. Positive Tropisms
    • *movement is towards the stimulus
    • *ex: plants bend towards sunlight
  19. Negative Tropisms
    • *movement is away from the stimulus
    • *ex: roots growing downwards (away from sun)
  20. Plant Hormones
    *hormone - chemical messengers
  21. 5 Plant Hormones
    • 1) Ethylene
    • 2) Gibberlin
    • 3) Cytokin
    • 4) Abscidic Acid (ABA)
    • 5) Auxin
  22. Ethylene
    *stimulates ripening in fruit
  23. Gibberlin
    *stimulates cell stem growth and seed germination
  24. Cytokin
    *for cell division and ripening
  25. Abscidid Acid (ABA)
    *keeps plants dormant in winter
  26. Auxin
    *helps stem "stretch"/elongate on shady side as it responds to light
  27. Photoperiodism
    • *the flowering response of a plant due to the change of light/darkness in a day
    • *different plant species will flower in different seasons
    • *the photoperiods will change with the seasons
  28. 3 Photoperiods for Plants
    • 1) Long Day Plants
    • 2) Short Day Plants
    • 3) Day Neutral Plants
  29. Long Day Plants
    • *requires short nights
    • *ex: spinach, lettuce, potatoes
  30. Short Day Plants
    • *requires long nights
    • *ex: poinsettas, strawberries, ragweed
  31. Day Neutral Plants
    • *requires wide range of night lengths
    • *ex: marigolds, corn
  32. Ways to Improve Crop Production
    • 1) Biotechnology
    • 2) Transgenic Crop
  33. Biotechnology
    • *moving DNA directly from one plant to another
    • *can be same or different plant species
  34. Transgenic Crop
    *DNA from one species into another species
  35. 2 Methods of Transgenic Cropping
    • 1) Bacterial
    • 2) DNA Particle Gun
  36. Bacterial Transgenic Cropping
    *insert DNA using a virus or bacteria
  37. DNA Particle Gun
    *shooting a DNA coated ball into the target cell of a plant

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