PY Notecards 6

Card Set Information

Author:
Anonymous
ID:
69104
Filename:
PY Notecards 6
Updated:
2011-02-26 17:37:17
Tags:
PY
Folders:

Description:
PY
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user Anonymous on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. Relation between Dissociative, Somatoform and Anxiety disorders
    Used to be classified together in DSM as neuroses.
  2. Dissociative and Somatoform Disorders Similarities
    • Onset is both related to a stressful experience.
    • Least understood and most controversial of disorders.
    • People rarely given these diagnoses.
  3. Dissociative Disorder is sudden disruption in continuity of:
    • Consciousness
    • Memory
    • Identity
  4. Dissociation
    • Some aspect of cognition or experience becomes inaccessible to consciousness.
    • Repression and avoidance.
  5. Amnesia
    • Memory loss, typically of a stressful experience.
    • Not due to physical injury and may last hours or years.
    • Usually returns spontaneously and in spurts.
  6. Prevalence
    The number of people who currently have a condition.
  7. Incidence
    The annual number of people who are diagnosed with a condition.
  8. Problems with prevalence vs. incidence:
    • An incurable disease can have low incidence, but high prevalence.
    • A short-lived curable condition like a cold can have a high incidence, but low prevalence.
  9. Memory recall deficits of trauma:
    • People focus on weapon and not the face of the person giving them trauma.
    • High levels of stress hormones might interfere with memory formation.
    • Emotional content might have vividness, but not accuracy.
    • Deficits are in explicit memory.
  10. Explicit memory
    Involves conscious recall of experiences.
  11. Implicit memory
    Underlies behaviors based on experiences that cannot be consciously recalled. (riding a bike)
  12. Two other causes of memory loss from dissociation:
    • Degenerative brain disorders
    • Substance abuse
  13. Degenerative Brain Disorders
    • Alzheimer's Disease
    • Not linked to stress
    • Involves gradual decline over time
    • Accompanied by other cognitive deficits - can't learn new info
  14. Fugue
    • Memory loss accompanied by leaving home and making new identity.
    • Sudden, unexpected travel with inability to recall one�s past and create a new identity.
    • Memory comes back spontaneously and in spurts.
    • 0.2% prevalence rate.
  15. Depersonalization disorder
    • Alteration in experience of self.
    • Feelings of detachment or disconnection from self.
    • Unusual sensory experiences - limbs enlarged or voice distant.
    • No psychosis or loss of memory.
    • Based on one symptom - criticized for this.
  16. Dissociative Identity Disorder
    • At least two distinct personalities that act independently of each other.
    • Other symptoms: headaches, hallucinations, self harm, suicide attempts.
    • Most severe dissociative disorder and more common in women.
  17. Two Major Theories of Causes of DID
    • Posttraumatic Model - results from severe psychological and/or sexual abuse in childhood.
    • Sociocognitive Model - a form of role-play in suggestible individuals. Response to therapists or media.
  18. Evidence raised in theory debate
    • DID can be role-played.
    • DID patients show only partial implicit memory deficits.
    • DID diagnosis differs by clinician.
    • For many, symptoms emerge after therapy begins.
  19. DID Treatments
    • Empathic and supportive therapist.
    • Integration of alters into one individual.
    • Improvement of coping skills.
    • Psychoanalytic - reexperience traumatic event
    • Poor outcomes.
  20. Somatoform Disorders
    • Psychological problems take a physiological form.
    • Bodily symptoms have no cause and are involuntary.
    • Individuals seek medical treatment.
  21. Pain Disorder
    • Severe, prolonged pain.
    • Can't be accounted for by organic pathology.
    • Caused by conflict and stress.
    • Individual unaware of psychological origins.
  22. Body Dysmorphic Disorder
    • Preoccupation with and extreme distress over imagined or exaggerated defect in appearance.
    • Constant examination of self in mirror or avoids mirrors.
    • Housebound or plastic surgery or suicidal thoughts.
    • Women. Late adolescence. High comorbidity.
  23. Hypochondriasis
    • Fears of having a serious disease.
    • Critical of medical professionals.
    • Early adulthood.
  24. Somatization Disorder or Briquet's Syndrome
    • Multiple, recurrent pain complaints with no apparent physical cause.
    • Seeks treatment from multiple physicians.
    • Exaggerated presentation of symptoms and complaints.
    • Higher in South Am. and Puerto Rico.
  25. Conversion Disorder
    • Sensory or motor function impaired but no neurological cause.
    • Vision impairment, paralysis of arms/legs, seizures or coordination problems. Anesthesia, aphonia, anosmia.
    • Can't be explained by medical condition.
  26. Anesthesia
    Loss of sensation.
  27. Aphonia
    Whispered speech.
  28. Anosmia
    Loss of smell.
  29. Hippocrates & Conversion Disorder
    Believed it only occured in women and attributed to wandering uterus. Hysteria.
  30. Freud & Conversion Disorder
    • Coined term conversion.
    • Thought that anxiety and conflict converted into physical symptoms.
  31. Conversion Disorder Onset
    • Adolescence to early adulthood.
    • Prevalence less than 1%.
    • Comorbid with depressive disorder, substance abuse, personality disorders.
  32. Conversion Disorder Cause
    • Distressing event that is unexpressed and pushed to unconscious.
    • In women, linked to sexual Electra Complex.
  33. Conversion Disorder Cause: Social and Cultural Factors
    • Decrease in incidence since last half of 19th century. Less repressed sexual attitudes and higher tolerance for anxiety symptoms.
    • Prevalent in rural areas, people of lower SES, non-western.
  34. Body Dysmorphic Disorder co-occurs with:
    Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
  35. Treatment of Somatoform Disorders
    • Cognitive Behavioral Treatment
    • Not many studies about this.
  36. Cognitive Behavioral Treatment - Somatoform Disorders (3)
    • Identify & change triggering emotions.
    • Change thinking about symptoms.
    • Replace sick role behaviors with more appropriate social interactions.
  37. Treatment of Pain Disorder
    • Antidepressants (Tofranil)
    • Components of psychotherapy for pain disorder
  38. Four Components of psychotherapy for pain disorder
    • Validation of patient�s pain
    • Relaxation training
    • Reinforce shift of focus away from pain
    • Help patient develop ability to cope with stress and gain sense of control over pain
  39. Treatment of Body Dysmorphic Disorder
    • Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
    • Exposure plus response prevention (Prevent individual from checking appearance)
    • Antidepressants (Fluoxetine & Clomipramine)
  40. Treatment of Hypochondriasis
    • Cognitive Behavioral Therapy:
    • Reduce attention to bodily sensations.
    • Challenge negative perceptions about sensations.
    • Discourage reassurance seeking from medical professionals.
  41. Treatment of Somatization Disorder
    • Medical professionals don�t dismiss physical complaints.
    • Minimize use of diagnostic tests and medication.
    • Avoid providing attention only when patient is complaining (reinforcing symptoms).
    • Treat underlying depression and anxiety when present.
  42. Treatment of Conversion Disorder
    • No controlled studies to date.
    • Psychoanalytic treatments have not demonstrated usefulness.
    • Reinforcement of high functioning behavior may help.

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview