General acupuncture

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mkelleher1
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69113
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General acupuncture
Updated:
2011-02-26 18:49:32
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general acupuncture
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General acupuncture
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  1. What is the master control of the ANS?
    hypothalamus
  2. fx frontal lobe
    • emotional control
    • personality
    • motor fx
    • memory
    • problem solving
    • reasoning
    • planning
  3. fx parietal lobe
    • primary somatosensory cortex (proproception, tactile)
    • comprehension
    • spatial orientation
  4. fx temporal lobe
    • hearing
    • comprehension
    • learning
    • memory
  5. fx occipital lobe
    vision
  6. fx insula
    • emotions
    • regulate homeostasis
    • interoceptive awareness (visceral awareness)
  7. fx cerebellum
    smooth movement
  8. components of the limbic system
    • thalamus
    • cingulate gyrus
    • hippocampus
    • fornix
    • parahippocampal gyrus
    • amygdala
  9. fx thalamus
    • sensory (except olfaction)
    • sensory relay/ integration
    • motor loops
  10. fx cingulate gyrus
    • emotion
    • learning
    • memory
    • resp control
  11. fx hippocampus
    • learning
    • long term memory
    • spatial navigation
  12. fx fornix
    efferent fibers from hippocampus to hypothalamus & septal nuclei (pleasure)
  13. fx parahippocampal gyrus
    • gray matter around hippocampus
    • encodes and retrieves memory
  14. fx amygdala
    impulses to hypothalamus to activate SNS (flight or fight)
  15. parts of brainstem
    • midbrain
    • pons
    • medulla oblongata
  16. fx midbrain
    • vision
    • audition
    • eye movement
    • control body movement
    • CN3
  17. fx pons
    • relay between forebrain & cerebellum
    • swallowing
    • urination
    • tearing
    • CN 5,6,7,8
  18. fx medulla oblongata
    • ANS
    • (cardio, resp, vomiting, vasomotor)
  19. CN 1 (name, foramen, fx)
    • olfactory n
    • cribiform plate
    • smell
  20. CN2 (name, foramen, fx)
    • optic n
    • optic canal
    • vision
  21. CN3 (name, foramen, fx)
    • oculomotor n
    • superior orbital fissure (SOF)
    • extra ocular muscle motor fx
    • motor fx of levator palpebrae
    • pupillary constriction
  22. CN4 (name, foramen, fx)
    • trochlear n
    • superior orbital fissure
  23. CN5 (name, foramen, fx)
    • trigeminal n
    • V1 superior orbital foramen
    • V2 foramen rotundum (maxillary)
    • V3 foramen ovale (mandibular)
    • sensation of face, scalp, dura, sinus, teeth, tympanic membrane, eye
    • motor for muscles of mastication
  24. CN6 (name, foramen, fx)
    • abducens n
    • superior orbital fissure
  25. CN7 (name, foramen, fx)
    • facial n
    • stylomastoid foramen
    • skin sensation of the ear, tympanic membrane
    • taste
    • motor fx of facial expression muscles, stapedius, caudal digastric muscles
    • lacrimation, salivation, nasal mucous membrane
  26. CN8 (name, foramen, fx)
    • vestibulocochlear n
    • no foramen
    • balance
    • hearing
  27. CN9 (name, foramen, fx)
    • glossopharyngeal n
    • jugular foramen
    • sensation of caudal tongue, pinna, tympanic membrane
    • sesation by carotid body and sinus
    • taste
    • motor fx of stylopharyngeus m
    • parotid gland fx
  28. CN10 (name, foramen, fx)
    • vagus n
    • jugular foramen
    • sensation to pinna, external acostic meatus, tympanic membrance and pharynx
    • sensation to larynx, trachea, esophagus, viscera, aortic stretch and chemo- recpetors
    • taste
    • muscles of the pharynx, tongue, larynx
  29. CN11 (name, foramen, fx)
    • spinal accessory n
    • jugular foramen
    • turns head and lifts shoulders
  30. CN12 (name, foramen, fx)
    • hypoglossal n
    • hypoglossal foramen
    • muscles of tongue
  31. n exiting supraorbital foramen & associated point
    • supraorbital n
    • BL-2
  32. n exiting infraorbital foramen & associated point
    • intraorbital n
    • ST-2
  33. point associated with stylomastoid foramen
    TH-17
  34. n innervating supraspinatus & infraspinatus
    spinal n segment
    motor fx of m
    • suprascapular n
    • C (5) 6 7
    • shoulder movement
    • lateral stabilization of shoulder
  35. n innervating subscapularis
    spinal n segment
    • subscapular n
    • C 6 7
  36. n innervating biceps brachii, brachialis, coracobrachialis
    spinal n segment
    motor fx of m
    • musculocutaneous n
    • C6 7 8
    • elbow flexion
  37. innervation deltoideus, teres major, teres minor
    spinal n segemnt
    motor fx of m
    • axillary n
    • C (6) 7 8
    • shoulder movement
  38. innervation of triceps brachii, ECR, ulnaris lateralis, CDE, LDE
    spinal n segment
    motor fx of m
    • radial n
    • C 7 8 T 1 (2)
    • extensors of antebrachium
  39. innervation of flexor carpi radialis, SDF, (DDF)
    spinal n segment
    motor fx of m
    • median n
    • C8 T1 (2)
    • flexors of the antebrachium
  40. innervation of flexor carpi ulnaris, DDF
    spinal n segment
    motor fx of m
    • ulnar n
    • C8 T1 (2)
    • flexors of antebrachium
  41. innervation of ilopsoas, quadriceps, sartorius
    spinal n segment
    motor fx
    • femoral n
    • L 4 5 6
    • hip flexion
  42. innervation of external obturator, pectineus, gracilus, adductor
    spinal n segment
    motor fx
    • obturator n
    • L (4) 5 6
    • adduction
  43. innervation of middle & deep gluteal, tensor fascia lata
    spinal n segment
    • cranial gluteal
    • L6 7 S1
  44. innervation of superficial gluteal (middle gluteal)
    spinal n segment
    • caudal gluteal n
    • L7 S (1 2)
  45. innervation of biceps femoris, semimem, semitend
    spinal n segment
    • sciatic n
    • L6 7 S1 (2)
  46. major branches of sciatic
    • common peroneal
    • tibial
  47. innervation of peroneus longus, LatDE, LDE, cranial tibial
    motor fx
    • common peroneal n
    • extensors of hind limb
  48. innervation of gastrocnemius, popliteus, SDF, DDF
    motor fx
    • tibial n
    • flexors of hind limb
  49. innervation of sphincters
    spinal n segment
    • pudendal n
    • S1 2 3
  50. ex of opioid peptides
    • beta endorphin
    • met enkephalin
    • endomorphin
    • enkephalin
    • dynorphin
  51. where is beta endorphin found
    fx
    • hypothalamus, pituitary gland
    • sense of well being
  52. where is met enkephalin found
    fx
    • dorsal horn of spinal cord
    • analgesia
  53. where is endomorphin, enkephalin found
    fx
    • periaquiductal grey, nucleus tractus solitarius
    • responses to pain, stress
    • fx of reward
    • limbic homeostasis
  54. where is dynorphin found
    fx
    • widely distributed
    • modulation of pain response
  55. types of seratonin
    where found
    fx
    • 5ht1, 5ht3 found in mucleus raphe magnus fx in descending pain inhibitory pathways
    • 5ht2 found in cortex & hippocampus fx is excitatory
  56. where is norepinephrine found
    fx
    • periaquiductal grey, brainstem
    • descending inhibition of pain
  57. where are alpha 2 adrenoceptors found
    fx
    • found in CNS
    • inhibitory modulation of pain sensation in the dorsal horn of spinal cord
  58. where is dopamine found
    fx
    • hypothalamus, midbrain
    • movement, motivation, memory, mood
  59. where is gamma aminobutyris acid found
    fx
    • widely distributed
    • inhibitory NT
  60. where is glutamate found
    fx
    • widely distributed
    • excitatory NT
  61. where is calcitonin gene related peptide found
    fx
    • peripheral & CNS
    • vasodilator influence on endothelial cells
  62. where is vasoactive intestinal peptide found
    fx
    • gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, hypothalamus
    • vasodilatory regulation of smooth muscle
  63. where is N methyl D aspartate receptors found
    fx
    • CNS
    • sympathetic plasticity
    • learning
    • memory
  64. where is nitric oxide found
    fx
    • widely distrbuted
    • signalling molecule (vasodilitory)
  65. what are the main inhibitory NT
    GABA, glycine
  66. what is the main excitiatory NT
    glutamate
  67. what is the effect of acupuncture on pro-inflammatory cytokines
    decrease
  68. what is the effect of acupuncture on anti-inflammatory cytokines
    increase
  69. where is adenosine found
    fx
    • tissues
    • modulated pain
  70. where is arginine vasopressin found
    fx
    • hypothalamus, amygdala
    • anti-nocipective
  71. where is neuropeptide y found
    fx
    • amygdala
    • counteracts cascade of flight or fight
  72. where is corticotrophin releasing factor found
    fx
    • amygdala
    • initiates biologic response of flight or fight
  73. where is nerve growth factor found
    fx
    • CNS, peripheral NS
    • nerve repair, psychneuroimmunologic fx
    • SNS neuromodulation
  74. where is brain derived neurotrophic factor found
    fx
    • retina, CNS
    • promote self repair of damaged neurons in the brain, stem cell mobiliation
  75. mechanism of laser light therapy
    • laser interacts with chromophores (cytochrome c oxidase)
    • initiates cellular responses such as increase ATP synthesis, RNA and protein synthesis, and oxygen consumption
  76. what inhibits the function of the cellular respiratory chain?
    end result
    nitric oxide displaces oxygen inducing or worsening hypoxic state
  77. tissues affect by laser light therapy
    • almost all including
    • blood, epithelium, joint, muscle, bone, neuron, connective tissue
  78. benefits of laser light therapy
    • analgesia
    • decreased edema
    • anti-inflammatory
    • tissue healing/ regeneration
  79. main n LU
    use
    • radial n
    • extensor m injury
    • radial n injury
  80. main n LI
    use
    • radial n
    • extensor muscle dysfunction
    • radial n injury
    • facial pain
  81. main n ST
    use
    • femoral n
    • peroneal n
    • CN 5 7
    • musculoskeletal pain, pain & motor dysfunction in face
  82. main n SP
    use
    • tibial n
    • musculoskeletal pain
    • voiding dysfunction
    • tibial n injury
    • rear limb edema
  83. main n HT
    use
    • ulnar n
    • thoracic limb dysfunction
    • cardiac problems
  84. main n SI
    use
    • ulnar n
    • CN 5 7
    • musculoskeletal problems, inc TMJ
  85. main n BL
    • CN5
    • spinal n branches
    • sciatic (with tibial, peroneal)
  86. main n KI
    use
    • tibial n
    • tibial n dysfunction
  87. main n PC
    use
    • median n
    • nucleus tractus solitarius, rostral ventrolateral medulla
    • anti-emetic, thoracic limb dysfunction, homeostasis
  88. pain n TH
    use
    • radial n, ulnar n
    • CN 5 7
    • musculoskeletal pain
    • facial n dysfunction
    • TMJ
    • ear dysfunction
  89. main n GB
    use
    • CN 5 7
    • spinal n
    • peroneal n
    • eye dysfunction
    • hip pain
    • pelvic limb dysfunction
  90. main n LR
    use
    • tibial n
    • saphenous n
    • pelvic limb dysfunction
  91. main n GV
    use
    • dorsal spinal branches
    • cardiopulmonary collapse
  92. main n CV
    use
    • ventral spinal branches
    • somatoviceral problems
  93. 2 important medullary reflex centers
    • nucleus tractus solitarius
    • rostral ventrolatera medulla
  94. cun between cyphisternal synchondrosis and umbilicus
    8
  95. cun between umbilicus and cranial border of pubic symphasis
    5
  96. cun between stifle joint and tarsus, laterally
    16
  97. cun between medial tibial condyle and proximal border of medial malleolus
    13
  98. cun between elbow joint and carpus
    12
  99. define horse cun
    width of 17th rib or width of 2 practioner fingers
  100. ting points fore limb
    • from caudolateral to caudomedial
    • HT9 (caudolateral)
    • SI1 (craniolateral)
    • TH23 (dorsal midline)
    • LI1 (craniomedial)
    • LU11 (caudomedial)
    • PC9 (palmar midline)
    • "(H)orses (S)hould (T)rot (L)eaving (L)umpy (P)oops
  101. ting points hind limb
    • from caudolateral to caudomedial
    • BL67 (caudolateral)
    • GB44 (craniolateral)
    • ST45 (dorsal midline)
    • LR1 (craniomedial)
    • SP1 (caudomedial)
    • KI1 (plantar midline)
    • (B)ig (G)ood (S)tuds (L)ive (S)ervicing (K)entucky

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