Defense against Infection

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Defense against Infection
2011-02-27 03:08:59

Vocab Chapter 40
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  1. Define Endotoxins
    The hypothamalmus raises the body's thermostat in response to pyrogens released by some phagocytic cells (macrophages) after stimulation by microorgansims known as endotoxins.
  2. Define Antigens:
    • Foreign particles, such as microbes, that enter a host.
    • In some cases body will recognize the person's own cells as antigens.
  3. Define Antibodies:
    B lymphocytes provide humoral immunity that Convey specific resistance to many bacterial and viral infections.
  4. Define Complement System:
    • A series of proteins found in the bloodstream, also aids in the antigen-antibody Rx.
    • Enhances phagocytosis of microbes, helps in lysis of bacterial cell wall, encourages inflammatory response.
  5. Define Vaccination:
    The process of injecting weakened or killed organisms into a person, stimulating antibody production.
  6. Define Agranulocytes
    • Mononuclear cells that lack digestive enzymes.
    • Monocytes, which are immature macrophages and lymphocytes are examples of agranulocytes.
  7. Define Granulocytes
    polymorphonuclear cells that contain granules of digestive enzymes. Specific types of granulocyes include neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils.
  8. Define Interferon
    A nonspecific chemical inhibitor that is secreted by body cells in response to viral invasion.
  9. Define Normal Flora
    Microorganisms tht live on the skin, in the nasopharynx, in the GI tract and on other body surfaces.
  10. Define Anaerobes:
    • Organisms requireing reduced oxygen for growth are often associated with serious infections.
    • Often seen with infections involving a combination of organisms.
  11. Define Bacterermia
    • When bacteria spread through the bloodstream.
    • Septicemia is often used as a synonym.
  12. Define Septicemia
    Presence of microorganisms in the bloodstream that are disrupting normal body functions.
  13. Define Blood poisoning:
    Common term for the presence of infectious agents such as Staphylococcus or Streptococcus in the blood.
  14. Define Nosocomial Infection
    A hospital acquired, often replaced by a more comprehensive term, Healthcare associated infection (HAI(
  15. Define Colonization:
    The introduction of mircroorganisms onto a body surface where they grow and multiply bud do not invade the body or cause an immune response or symptoms.
  16. Define Purulent:
    As WBC migrate to the infection drainage may be observed (pus)
  17. Define Leukocytosis
    • The number of WBC or Leukocytes, rises in response to infection, tissure necrosis, stess or neoplastic changes in bone marrow.
    • A rise in circulating WBC above the normal adult range of 5000 to 10000.
  18. Define Sepsis
    Poisoning of body tissues: usually refers to blood-borne organisms or their toxic products.
  19. Define Communicable Disease
    The causative agent of the disease is transmissible between one person and another
  20. Define Opportunistic
    • Normal flora cause disease under the right circumstances.
    • They take advantage o being in the right place at the right time and cause infection especially in clients with compromised immune systems.
  21. Define Neutropenia
    Decrease in the neurophils in the blood, the white blood cells responsible for quick response to invasion by infectious organisms.
  22. Define Superinfection
    A secondary infection that occurs when antibiotices, immuniosuppressions or cancer treatment destroys normal flora.
  23. Communicable period is
    • Incubation Period-Pathogen intrance and appearance of sypmptoms.
    • Prodromal Period -Nonspecific symptoms
    • Acute Phase - specific symptoms appear
    • Convalescent Period - Body returns to normal.
  24. Define Neutorpenia
    Poses a significant risk for infections when the absolute neutrophil count falls to fewer than 1000 cells/mm3.