- 1. SLA follows a natural sequence of development, but there will be minor variations in the order and rate of development and level of proficiency.
2. At any stage of development, the learner's interlanguage
comprises a system of variable rules
- 3. Situational factors are indirect determinates of the rate of SLA and level of proficiency achieved, but do not invluence the sequence and only affect the order in minor and temporary ways.
4. Situational factors are the primary causes of variability in language-learner language.
- 5. Input that is interactionally (but not necessarily formally) adjusted as a result of the negiotiation of meaning in a two-way discourse functions as a determinant of the sequence, order, and rate of development.
- Learner Differences
- 6. Affective learner differences (motivation/personality) determine the rate of SLA and the level of proficiency, but not the sequence or order of development.
7. The learner's L2 influence the order of development, but not the sequence of development.
- Learner Processes
- 8. Interlanguage development occurs as a product of the learner's use of procedural knowledge to construct discourse.
9. Interlanguage development occurs as the product of the learner's UG, which makes some rules easier to learn than others.
- Linguistic Output
- 10. Language-learner language consists of 1. formulaic speech and 2. utterances constructed creatively.
11. Language-learner language is variable, dynamic, but also systematic.
(Ellis 1985 pp. 278-280)