-Apoptosis (program cell death), secretion of inflammatory mediators, production of stimulatns of adaptive immune respone
What are interferons?
Protein molecultes released by hose cells to nonspecifically inhibit the spread of viral infections.
-Causes many symptoms with viral infections.
-Type 1 and 2
What are type 1 interferons?
-Alpha and beta
What are type two interferons?
-Only immune cells- leukocytes
What are characterisitics of Alpha interferon?
-inducing agent: virsues
Action: Stimulates production of aniviral proteins
What are characterisitics of Beta interferons?
-Inducing agent: virus
-Action: stimulats production of antiviral proteins
What is the action of alpha and beta interferons?
-Interferons are released goes to neighboring cells and stops the RNA/protein of the cell because a virus cannot infect a "sick cell", then it breaks up the virus RNA
What is complement?
-Set of serum proteins designated numerically according to their order of discover. 1-9 (Does not mean they happen in this order)
-Activation results in lysis of the foreign cell
-can be activated in three ways: classical, alternate, lectin
What is the classical pathway in complement?
-Activated by antibody molecues coating the microbes (Adaptive)
What is the alternate pathway in complement?
-Activated by surface components of microbes directly
What is the MAC attack?
-membrane attack complexes- hole in cell
What happens after the 1st line in complement is activated
-The rest will follow and end result is MAC Attack
What is c3b?
an opsonin for phagocytosis. A split product of c3, which can bind to cell membranes and then an opsonin for neutrophils and macrophages
How does the classical pathway work?
-Antigen and antibody with proteins from immunoglobins (1, 2,4), then activation (this is the complement) by C3 splitting into c3a and c3b for opsonization and inflammation. Then C5 splits into c5a and c5b for inflammation and it is followed by MAC Attack
How does the alternative pathway work?
c3b the opsinon is on the cell, then activation (this is the complement) by C3 splitting into c3a and c3b for opsonization and inflammation. Then C5 splits into c5a and c5b for inflammation and it is followed by MAC Attack.
What is c3a and c5a?
-Smooth muscle contraction, histamine realease from mast cells, enhanced vascular permeability (vasodilation) for inflammation.
What is c5a?
-A chemotactic agent for neutrophils (PMN) and macrophages. It signals for help-need vasodilation
What is C56789?
MAC attack: induces holes in membrane of pathogen
What is the inactivation of complement?
-Body's own cels withstand complement cascade (inhibitors)
-Proteins on many cells bind and break down activated complement proteins
What is inflmmation?
-Nonspecific response to tissue damage from various caues
-Redness, heat, swelling, pain, and loss of function
-local or systemic
two types: Acute and chronic
What is acute inflammation?
-develops quickly and is short lived
-2nd line of defense
1. Vascular events
2. Cellular events
3. Tissue Repair
What are vascular events in inflammation?
-Leading to dilation and increased permeability of the blood vessels
-prostaglandins and leukotrienes (produced by damaged cell)
-Histamine (mast cells and blood basophil release)
-Anaphylotoxins (c3a, c5a complement)
What are cellular events in inflmmation?
-leading to the migration of phagocytes to the site of injury is mediated by:
Release of chemotacitc factors
-c5a: complement cascade
-interleukin (il-8): released by macrophages
-antibody IgG is an opsonin
What is the stimulation of inflammation by complement?
-c3b and c5a fragments of complement cause mast cells realse inflammatory mediators cause vasodiatation of capillaries
What is a fever?
- Body temp over 37 C
-Results when pyrogens trigger the hypothalamus to increase the body's core temp
Various types of pyrogens: Bacterial toxins, cytoplasmic contents of bacteria by lysis, antibody-antien complexes: signal for interluekin by macrophages.