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What are the two methods of immunity?
-Active and passive immunization
What is active immunization?
-Administration of antigens so patient actively mounts a protective immune response
What is passive immunization?
-Individual acquires immunity through the transfer of antibodies formed by immune individual or animal
What are the three types of vaccines?
-killed, live and subunit
who and what year was the process of vaccination discovered?
-1796 by Edward Jenner
Who and what year was the 1st vaccine developed?
- - 1879 by Louis Pasteur
- -Antibody transfer developed when it was discovered vaccines protected through the action of antibodies
What is the effect of reducing prevalence of disease?
- -reduces the disease greatly
- -Manying developing nations do not received vaccines
- -effective vaccines not deveoped for some pathogens.
- -Vaccine-associated risks discourage investment in developing new vaccines
What is an attenuated (live) vaccine?
- -Use of pathogens with reduced virulence
- -Can result in mild infection (so never given in HIV patients)
- -Active micrboes stimulate a strong immune response
- -long term immunity
- -modified microbes may retain residual virulence to cause diseases
- -Examples: MMR, Polio (Sabin Vaccine), Chickenpox, shingles
What are inactivated (killed) vaccines?
- -Whole agent vaccines
- -Subunit Vaccines-safer than live
- -Antigenically weak because microbes dont provide many antigenic molecules to stimulate immune response
- -Contain adjuvants
- -Examples: Influenza, hep A, Polio (Salk) US, rabies
What are adjuvants?
- -Chemicals added to inactivated vaccines to increase effectve antigenicity.
- -A helper makes vaccine to stimulate immune system
What are the pros and cons of a live vaccine?
- Live: The 1st injection allows the viurs to multiply rapidly, prompting a full-scale immune response with antibody production and a t-cell response.
- Graph-High and stays high
- Pros: only need one injection
- cons: there is a small risk of developing the disease
What are the pros and cons of a killed vaccine?
- -A killed viruse cants multiply and the antibody response is limited. Two futher injections at later dates to ensure sufficient antibody production.
- Pros: There is no risk of illness
- Con: Three injections needed
- Graph: low then high after three
What are subunit vaccines?
- -Subunit vaccines use only those parts of the microbe that stimulate the immune system antigens
- -By containing only what is needed for an immune response, but not all the parts of the microbe.
- -Tend to cause few adverse reactions
- -Hep B, diptheria, gential warts, cervical cancer, mengingococcal, pertussis, tetanus
What are toxoid vaccines?
- -Block the toxin
- -With some bacterial disease the problem is not the bacteria but the toxins they produce which poisons the cells-
- -Ex. diaptheria and tetanus
- -Contain inativated toxis, which stimulate antitoxin antibody productions
- -when infected the antibodies can block the toxins from getting into cells (denature it)
- -Require multiple doses because they possess few antigenic determinants.
What are general vaccines used routinely?
- -MMR, DTAP (combination vaccines)-simultaneous administraion of antigens from several pathogens.
- -Recombiniant vaccines (recombinant gene technology)- Reseach attempts to make vaccines more effective, cheaper, and safer. Variey of techniques improve vaccines
What do vaccine manufacturers do?
- -Mass-produce many vaccines by growing microbes in culture vessels
- -Viruses are cultured inside chicken eggs
- -Individuals with egg allergies must aviod some vaccines
What are the CDC recommendations?
- Hep B- birth to 16 months
- RV- 2-4 months
- DTAP- 2-16 months
- Hib- 2-16 months
- PCV- 2-15 months
- Flu- yearly at 4 months
- MMR- 1 year
What are problems with immunization?
- -Mild toxicity most common
- -Risk of anaphylactic shock
- -Residual virulence from attenuated viruses
- -Allegations certain caccines cause autism, diabetes, and asthma (research has not substantiated these allegations)
What is Passive immunotherpy?
- -Administration of antiserum containing preformed antibodies
- -provides immediate protection against a recent infection or an ongoing disease
What are limitations of antiserum?
- -Contain antibodies against many antigents
- -Can trigger allergic reactions called serum sickness
- -viral pathogens may contaminate antisera
- -Antibodies degrade quickly
what are agglutination tests?
- -Occurs due to cross-linking of antidoies with particualte antigens
- -The clumpingof insoluble partices
- -Preceiptiation involves the aggregation of soluble molecules
- -Reactions are easy to see and interpret with the unadied eye
What is hemagglutination?
- -Used to determine blood types
- -Agglutination of RBC
What is a titer?
-Last level we see aggluation at
What are neutralization tests?
- -Viral hemagglutination inhibition test
- -Useful for viruses that aren't cytopathic
- -ability of viral surface proteins to clump to RBC
- -Individuals seum will stop viral hemagglutination if teh serum contains antibodies against the specific virus.
- -Used to detect: Flu, measles, and mumps.
What is the titer in viral hemagglutination?
-The antibody concentration
What is the labeled antibody test?
- -Use antibody molecules linked to some "label" that enables them to be easily detected
- -Use to dected either anigens or antibodies
- -Like a lock and key, by covalent bond
What is the fluorescent antibody test?
- -Another labeled antibody test
- -Use fluoescent dyes as labels to tag the antibody
- -Fluroescein is one dye
- -Have antigen on the surface
What is ELISA?
- -another labeled antibody test
- -Enzyme-linked Immuno Sorbent Assay
- -Uses enzyme as label
- -Reaction of enzyme with its substrate produces a colored produce indicating a positive test.
- -Presense of antibodies in serum with HIV
- -Dark purple color, positive response
How does ELISA work?
Antigen is blocked and then is bound by an antibody, then added a 2nd antibody then an enzyme to see if colorful.
What are recent developments in immune testing?
- -Very rapid and easy to read ELISA Stick
- -Antigen solution flows through a porous strip, where it encounters labeled antibody
- -Visible line produced when antigen-antibody immune complexes encounter antibody against them
- -used in prgenancy testing