Micro J210 Immunization

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capinto
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Micro J210 Immunization
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2011-02-27 00:17:38
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Micro J210 Immunization
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Micro J210 Immunization
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  1. What are the two methods of immunity?
    -Active and passive immunization
  2. What is active immunization?
    -Administration of antigens so patient actively mounts a protective immune response
  3. What is passive immunization?
    -Individual acquires immunity through the transfer of antibodies formed by immune individual or animal
  4. What are the three types of vaccines?
    -killed, live and subunit
  5. who and what year was the process of vaccination discovered?
    -1796 by Edward Jenner
  6. Who and what year was the 1st vaccine developed?
    • - 1879 by Louis Pasteur
    • -Antibody transfer developed when it was discovered vaccines protected through the action of antibodies
  7. What is the effect of reducing prevalence of disease?
    • -reduces the disease greatly
    • -Manying developing nations do not received vaccines
    • -effective vaccines not deveoped for some pathogens.
    • -Vaccine-associated risks discourage investment in developing new vaccines
  8. What is an attenuated (live) vaccine?
    • -Use of pathogens with reduced virulence
    • -Can result in mild infection (so never given in HIV patients)
    • -Active micrboes stimulate a strong immune response
    • -long term immunity
    • -modified microbes may retain residual virulence to cause diseases
    • -Examples: MMR, Polio (Sabin Vaccine), Chickenpox, shingles
  9. What are inactivated (killed) vaccines?
    • -Whole agent vaccines
    • -Subunit Vaccines-safer than live
    • -Antigenically weak because microbes dont provide many antigenic molecules to stimulate immune response
    • -Contain adjuvants
    • -Examples: Influenza, hep A, Polio (Salk) US, rabies
  10. What are adjuvants?
    • -Chemicals added to inactivated vaccines to increase effectve antigenicity.
    • -A helper makes vaccine to stimulate immune system
  11. What are the pros and cons of a live vaccine?
    • Live: The 1st injection allows the viurs to multiply rapidly, prompting a full-scale immune response with antibody production and a t-cell response.
    • Graph-High and stays high

    • Pros: only need one injection
    • cons: there is a small risk of developing the disease
  12. What are the pros and cons of a killed vaccine?
    • -A killed viruse cants multiply and the antibody response is limited. Two futher injections at later dates to ensure sufficient antibody production.
    • Pros: There is no risk of illness
    • Con: Three injections needed
    • Graph: low then high after three
  13. What are subunit vaccines?
    • -Subunit vaccines use only those parts of the microbe that stimulate the immune system antigens
    • -By containing only what is needed for an immune response, but not all the parts of the microbe.
    • -Tend to cause few adverse reactions
    • -Hep B, diptheria, gential warts, cervical cancer, mengingococcal, pertussis, tetanus
  14. What are toxoid vaccines?
    • -Block the toxin
    • -With some bacterial disease the problem is not the bacteria but the toxins they produce which poisons the cells-
    • -Ex. diaptheria and tetanus
    • -Contain inativated toxis, which stimulate antitoxin antibody productions
    • -when infected the antibodies can block the toxins from getting into cells (denature it)
    • -Require multiple doses because they possess few antigenic determinants.
  15. What are general vaccines used routinely?
    • -MMR, DTAP (combination vaccines)-simultaneous administraion of antigens from several pathogens.
    • -Recombiniant vaccines (recombinant gene technology)- Reseach attempts to make vaccines more effective, cheaper, and safer. Variey of techniques improve vaccines
  16. What do vaccine manufacturers do?
    • -Mass-produce many vaccines by growing microbes in culture vessels
    • -Viruses are cultured inside chicken eggs
    • -Individuals with egg allergies must aviod some vaccines
  17. What are the CDC recommendations?
    • Hep B- birth to 16 months
    • RV- 2-4 months
    • DTAP- 2-16 months
    • Hib- 2-16 months
    • PCV- 2-15 months
    • Flu- yearly at 4 months
    • MMR- 1 year
  18. What are problems with immunization?
    • -Mild toxicity most common
    • -Risk of anaphylactic shock
    • -Residual virulence from attenuated viruses
    • -Allegations certain caccines cause autism, diabetes, and asthma (research has not substantiated these allegations)
  19. What is Passive immunotherpy?
    • -Administration of antiserum containing preformed antibodies
    • -provides immediate protection against a recent infection or an ongoing disease
  20. What are limitations of antiserum?
    • -Contain antibodies against many antigents
    • -Can trigger allergic reactions called serum sickness
    • -viral pathogens may contaminate antisera
    • -Antibodies degrade quickly
  21. what are agglutination tests?
    • -Occurs due to cross-linking of antidoies with particualte antigens
    • -The clumpingof insoluble partices
    • -Preceiptiation involves the aggregation of soluble molecules
    • -Reactions are easy to see and interpret with the unadied eye
  22. What is hemagglutination?
    • -Used to determine blood types
    • -Agglutination of RBC
  23. What is a titer?
    -Last level we see aggluation at
  24. What are neutralization tests?
    • -Viral hemagglutination inhibition test
    • -Useful for viruses that aren't cytopathic
    • -ability of viral surface proteins to clump to RBC
    • -Individuals seum will stop viral hemagglutination if teh serum contains antibodies against the specific virus.
    • -Used to detect: Flu, measles, and mumps.
  25. What is the titer in viral hemagglutination?
    -The antibody concentration
  26. What is the labeled antibody test?
    • -Use antibody molecules linked to some "label" that enables them to be easily detected
    • -Use to dected either anigens or antibodies
    • -Like a lock and key, by covalent bond
  27. What is the fluorescent antibody test?
    • -Another labeled antibody test
    • -Use fluoescent dyes as labels to tag the antibody
    • -Fluroescein is one dye
    • -Have antigen on the surface
  28. What is ELISA?
    • -another labeled antibody test
    • -Enzyme-linked Immuno Sorbent Assay
    • -Uses enzyme as label
    • -Reaction of enzyme with its substrate produces a colored produce indicating a positive test.
    • -Presense of antibodies in serum with HIV
    • -Dark purple color, positive response
  29. How does ELISA work?
    Antigen is blocked and then is bound by an antibody, then added a 2nd antibody then an enzyme to see if colorful.
  30. What are recent developments in immune testing?
    • -Immunochromatography
    • -Very rapid and easy to read ELISA Stick
    • -Antigen solution flows through a porous strip, where it encounters labeled antibody
    • -Visible line produced when antigen-antibody immune complexes encounter antibody against them
    • -used in prgenancy testing

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