Med Surg test #2

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plwtn
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69219
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Med Surg test #2
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2011-02-28 20:03:51
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PLWTN Med Surg test
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PLWTN Med Surg test #2
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  1. Cardiac Tissue Layers:
    1.) Outer layer -
    2.) Middle layer -
    3.) Inner layer -
    • 1.) Epicardium
    • 2.) Myocardium
    • 3.) Endocardium
  2. Sac like structure that surrounds and supports the heart.
    Pericardium
  3. Attached to the tricuspid and mitral valves are cordlike structures that assist with valve closing.
    Chordae Tendineae
  4. Which arteries carries blood to the heart?
    Left and right coronary arteries.
  5. The term _____________ refers to the contraction and relaxation of both atria and both ventricles.
    Cardiac Cycle
  6. Pressure-sensitive nerve endings in the walls of the atria and major blood vessels that sense blood pressure and act accordingly are?
    Baroreceptors
  7. Structures that are sensitive to the pH and CO2 and O2 levels of blood and are located in the Carotid bodies, Aortic bodies, and in the Medulla.
    Chemoreceptors
  8. The amount of blood pumped out of the left ventricle in ONE MINUTE is reffered to as?
    Cardiac Output - 4 to 8 L in normal adult.
  9. The amount of blood pumped per contraction?
    Stroke Volume - 65 to 70 mL
  10. Inflamation in more that one joint?
    Polyarthritis
  11. Inflamation of the inner layer of the heart tissue?
    Endocarditis
  12. Inflamation of the middle layer of heart tissue is?
    Myocarditis
  13. Signs and symtoms of endocarditis can be. (5 of them)
    • 1.) Osler nodes - purple nodules
    • 2.) Splinter hemorrhage - fingernails
    • 3.) Janeway lesions - palms of hands
    • 4.) Roth's spots - White around eyes
    • 5.) Petechiae - Tiny hemorrhages
  14. Vegetations can break off to form _____ which are mobile masses of fibrin and clusters of platelets that circulate in the blood stream.
    emboli
  15. Chronic condition characterzed by structural changes in the heart muscle. Muscle can be dilated, hypertrophic, and restrictive.
    Cardiomyopathy
  16. Pericardical fluid build up from fluid leaking into the the interstitial space is?
    cardiac tamponade
  17. Inflamation of the vein accompanied by clot or thrombus formation.
    Thrombophlebitis
  18. The veins deep in the lower extremities are most commonly affected by clots. This condition is refferred to as?
    Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT)
  19. Calf pain that increased with dorsi flexion of the foot is refferred to as a positive?
    holman's sign
  20. The use of radiopaque dye instilled into the veins to search for clots is refferred to as?
    venography
  21. An unbrella type filter inserted to trap emboli before they reach the heart and lungs are?
    vena cava filter
  22. Narrowing of the opening in the aortic valve when the valve cusps become stiff.
    Aortic Stenosis
  23. An invasive, nonsurgical procedure to enlarge narrowed valve opening.
    balloon valvuloplasty
  24. This occurs when the arotic valve does not close tightly and blood can leak backwards.
    aortic regurgitation
  25. A radial pulse that may be very strong, with quick sharp beats followed by sudden collaspe of force is called?
    water-hammer pulse
  26. The loss of elasticity or hardening of the arteries that acompanies the aging process is called.
    Arteriosclerosis
  27. The condition in which the lumen of arteries are filled with fatty deposits called plaque.
    Atherosclerosis
  28. Impaired oxygenation is referred to as?
    ischemia
  29. The desirable total cholestrol lever is?
    <200 mg
  30. Optimal LDL numbers?
    <100 mg
  31. Optimal HDL numbers?
    >60 mg
  32. Clients whose atherosclerotic plaque is no longer soft and pliable may benefit from an ___________, removal of fatty plaque.
    atherectomy
  33. ________ is a stationary blood clot.
    thrombus
  34. _________ is a moving blood clot and is either solid or gas
    embolus
  35. The force produced by the volume of blood in the arterial walls is referred to as?
    Blood Pressure (BP)
  36. Systolic blood pressure 120 to 139 mm Hg or a diastolic blood pressure between 80 and 89 mm Hg is referred to as?
    Prehypertension
  37. Sustained elevations in systolic or diastolic blood pressure that exceeds prehypertension is?
    hypertension
  38. Elevated BP that causes a cardiac abnormality is called?
    hypertensive heart disease
  39. Hypertension is divided into 2 main categories they are?
    Essential and Secondary Hypertension
  40. Sustained elevated BP with no known cause and makes up 96% of the cases?
    Essential Hypertension
  41. Elevated BP that results from or is secondary to some other disorder?
    Secondary Hypertension
  42. ______ is a chemical that the kidneys release to raise BP?
    Renin
  43. ______ ______ is a hormone produced by the heart, results in the elevation of BP because its role is to promote the excretion of sodium by the kidneys.
    natriuretic factor
  44. Edema of the optic nerve.
    papilledema

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