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a bacteria that requires O2 for survival
a bacteria that thrives in little or no O2
an immunoglobulin produced by lymphocytes in response to bacteria, virus or other antigenic substance
Antibacterial Drugs are...
a substance (usually a protein) that the body recognizes as foreign, and that can provoke an immune response
Artificial Immunity is...
gained following the receipt of a vaccine, has a short life span and required boosters
can be active or passive
- the absence of pathologic microorganisms
- these techniques are practices that keep the pt as free from microorganisms as possible
a substance that kills bacteria
a substance that prevents growth and reproduction of bacteria
Broad-Spectrum Antibiotics are...
effective against a wide range of infectious microorganisms
people who harbor and spread an organism that causes a disease in others but they themselves are not ill
the presence and multiplication of microorganisms without tissue invasion or damage
contagious, transmissible by direct or indirect means
- an inactive protein found in blood serum, it is activated when an antigen and antibody bind
- initiates the phagocytosis and lysing processes
when a complement makes a hole through the antigens cell membrane causing it to burst
a process that eliminates many or all microorganisms with the exception of bacterial spores
Endogenous infection is...
an infection that occurs when a persons natural flora becomes altered and overgrows
the study of disease
Exogenous Infection is...
an infections that is caused by a microorganism external to the individual, it is not found in the normal flora
Drainage of fluids
- serous is clear
- sanguineous is pinkish bc it contains small amts of blood
- purulent is cloudy bc it contains wbc's and bacteria
Granulation Tissue is...
scar tissue, repair tissue that isn't as strong as tissue collagen
Hand Washing is...
a vigorous brief rubbing together of all surfaces on the hands lathered in soap, followed by rinsing under a stream of water
Iatrogenic Infections are...
a type of nosocomial infection resulting from a diagnostic or therapeutic procedure
Immune Responses are...
- a series of biological responses that change the bodies biological makeup so that reactions to future exposure are different than the first reaction.
- in a normal immune response the antigen is neutralized, destroyed or eliminated
an impaired immune system
Inflammatory Response includes..
- vascular and cellular responses
- formation of inflammatory exudates
- tissue repair
interferes with the ability of the viruses to multiple and protects body cells from simultaneous infection with other viruses
Invasive infection is...
characterized by a tendency to spread, infiltrate and intrude
an increase in the number of circulating WBC's
Localized Infection is...
an infection that affects a single organ or part
chemical messengers that attract macrophages and stimulate then to attack antigens
Medical Asepsis is...
- clean technique
- procedures used to reduce/prevent the spread of microorganisms
- ex. hand washing, wearing gloves
Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA)
- a nosocomial infection
- MOT is from pt's that are carriers to a pt with a compromised immune system
- microscopic organisms capable of carrying out living processes
- ex. fungi, bacteria, viruses, protozoa
Multiple Resistant Organisms (MRO)
microorganisms that are resistant to multiple antibodies
Natural Immunity is...
- immunity that results after having had a disease
- usually lasts a lifetime
Normal Flora is
- the microorganisms that normally live in the body.
- microorganisms that do not normally cause disease when residing in their usual area of the body, but participate in maintaining health by preventing other microorganisms from growing or spreading
Health Care-Associated Infections (HAI's)
- nosocomial infections
- hospital acquired infections resulting from delivery of care
Passive Immunity is...
immunity of short duration and is the type that can be obtained via the placenta from mother to child
the ability of a pathogenic agent to produce disease
a microorganism with the ability to cause disease.
the process in which neutrophils or monocytes ingest and destroy microorganisms or other small particles
the act of preventing.
- pus colored drainage
- contains WBC's and bacteria
- pink-red colored clear drainage
- contains RBC's
drainage that has coagulated blood in it
drainage that has mucous in it
- clear colored drainage
- similar to plasma
Sterile Field is...
a specified area such as within a tray or towel that is considered to be free of microorganisms
the complete elimination or destruction of all microorganisms, including spores
a secondary infection usually caused by an opportunistic pathogen
Surgical Asepsis is...
- sterile technique
- procedures used to eliminate all microorganisms including spores
- an object is considered contaminated if it is touched by an object that is not sterile
being vulnerable to disease or disorder
- pertains to affecting the whole system
- an infection that invades the entire body
Vancomycin Resistant Enterococcus (VRE)
- normally present in the human intestine and the female genital tract
- can cause UTI's, blood stream infections and wound infections
a carrier, such as a tick or mosquito that transmits a disease
the power of a microorganism to produce disease
Explain the relationship of the chain of infections to transmission of infection. Identify ways to break the chain of infection.
- Chain of infection:
- 1. a pathogen
- 2. a reservoir for growth
- 3. portal of exit from reservoir
- 4. a mode of transmission
- 5. portal of entrance to a host
- 6. a susceptible host
an infection will occur if the chain remains intact, nurses follow infection prevention and control practices to inhibit infection
Describe the inflammatory response, including its triggering agents.
- *inflammatory response is a protective vascular and cellular reaction that neutralizes pathogens and repairs body cells
- *inflammation is a protective vascular reaction that delivers fluids, blood products and nutrients to interstitial tissue in the area of the injury
- this process neutralizes and eliminates pathogens or dead tissue and establishes a means of repairing body cells and tissue
- *includes: vascular and cellular responses (arterial dilation); formation of inflammatory exudates (removal of "junk" via lymphatic drainage); tissue repair (damaged cells are eventually repaired)
- *may be triggered by: physical agents; chemical agents; microorganisms; mechanical trauma; temperature extremes; radiation
- signs of inflammation: Swelling; Heat; Altered function; Redness; Pain
Distinguish b/t localized and systemic symptoms of inflammations and infection.
- Signs of localized inflammation/infection: Swelling; Heat; Altered function; Redness; Pain
- Signs of systemic inflammation/infection: Fever; Leukocytosis; Malaise; Anorexia; Vomiting; Nausea; Lymphnode enlargement
Identify the bodies normal defenses agains infection.
- barriers against entry into the body like skin, mucous membranes;body fluids such as sebum, saliva, acidity of stomach secretions; normal flora; cilia, macrophages and the flushing flow of urine
- inflammatory response; immune response
Describe the 4 stages of infection.
- Incubation period: the time from when the pathogen enters the body to the time when the first unspecific symptoms occur
- Prodromal stage: the time from the onset of the non-specific symptoms (malaise, low grade fever, fatigue) to specific symptoms ( this is the stage where the microorganisms grow and multiply, they are contagious)
- Illness stage: you have the signs and symptoms specific to the type of infection (a cold, sore throat, sinus congestion or high fever)
- Convalescence Stage: when acute symptoms disappear and the body starts getting better
Identify factors which increase an individual's risk for infections.
- pt's susceptibility to infection: (family hx)
- age: (infants have fewer defenses and OA have impaired skin and respiratory integrity)
- nutritional status: (reduction in protein, carbs and other nutrients reduce defenses and impair wound healing)
- disease process: ( AIDS, Leukemia...)
- medical therapies: (some drug and medical therapies compromise immunity to infection)
Explain conditions that promote the transmission of HAI's.
- -the use of invasive devices such as IV's, catheters and syringes
- -over use of broad spectrum antibiotics
- -poor aseptic technique or sterile technique
- -improper hand washing
Identify sites and causes in the body for HAI's.
Explain the difference b/t cell-mediated immunity and humoral immunity.
Cell Mediated Immunity: T-lymphocytes recognize an antigen via receptors and release lymphokines that attract macrophages and stimulate them to attack the antigen which in turn is killed (non-specific)
Humoral Immunity: the stimulation of B cells triggers this response, when it is stimulated it causes the synthesis of immunoglobulins or antibodies that destroy the antigen (specific)
Differentiate b/t natural and acquired immunity.
Natural Immunity: results after having had a certain disease (varicella); it is usually life long
Acquired Immunity: comes from the receipt of a vaccine (tetanus or polio); the duration is variable and may require a booster
Give an example for preventing infection for each element of the chain of infection.
- Control or eliminate reservoirs: control or eliminate bodily fluids, drainage or contaminated solutions
- Control portals of exit: cover mouth and know when coughing or sneezing, use contact precautions
- Control of Transmission: client should use their personal items only, handwashing
- Control portals of entry: maintain skin and mucous membrane integrity, dispose of sharps
- Protect the susceptible host
What health promoting actions by the nurse minimize or prevent infections in 1. reservoirs 2.portals of exit 3. transmission 4.portals of entry.
Explain how infection control measures may differ in the home vs the hospital.
Why are dedicated articles and equipment used for a pt infected with MRO?
Dedicated articles are used for individuals with MRSA, C-diff, and VRE because they become colonized and must be sterilized before used by others
Explain the use of white blood count with differential.
Explain the use of culture and sensitivity (C&S)
What are their normal values?
What effect does inflammation and infection have on the values?
normal is 4.5-11 mm3
; this value increases with acute infection
and decrease in certain viral or overwhelming infections
when the WBC are broken down to show % of each type of WBC
- Neutrophils- 55-70% increased in acute infection, decreased in overwhelming bacterial infection
- Lymphocytes- 20-40% increased in chronic bacterial and viral infections, decreased in sepsis
- Monocytes- 5-10% increased in protozoan, rickettsial and TB infections
- Eosinophils- 1-4% increased in parasitic infections
- Basophils- 0.5-1.5% normal during infection
ESR: (Erythrocyte sedimentation rate) <15mm/hr for men; <20mm/hr for women; increased in the presence in infection
Iron Level: 60-90g/100ml; decreased in chronic infection
Cultures: urine, blood (sterile), sputum and drainage. the cultures are to detect the presence of infectious microorganism growth.
Identify and describe the CDC recommended adult immunization schedule for 2005, including purpose, scheduling and nursing indications.
Describe the methods used to prevent the transmission of disease recommended by the CDC identified as tier 1.
- Tier 1:
- Standard Precautions
- Tier 2:
- Contact Precautions: (transmitted by touch); private or cohort; gloves, gown and committed equipment.
- Droplet Precautions: (transmitted via the air > 5 micrometers); private; mask
- Airborne Precautions: (transmitted via the air < 5 micrometers); negative pressure private; N95 mask
Identify the psychological implications of isolation and appropriate nursing interventions.
Your pt is in a private, negative air pressure room with a suspected dx of TB. Airborne precautions are being followed. You notice the pt's MD entering the room without a mask. What would you do?
You observe that the nurses aide has not changed her gloves after bathing a pt and then proceeds to prepare her roommate for a bath. What would you do?