tests attempt 2

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kappler
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69268
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tests attempt 2
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2011-02-27 15:17:44
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  1. In the fluorescent screens inside of your radiogrpahic cassette, which of the following forms of luminescense is the one desired in xray
    flurosecense
  2. What is the purpose of the oil that surrounds the glass envelope inside of the tube housing?
    acts as an electrical insulator
  3. Which of the variables in techniqe is the primary controller for making the image darker or lighter
    mAs
  4. To double the density of an image, increase kvp percent by_____?
    15%
  5. You are forced to use a large OID, what two things can you do to get back some of the sharpness of detail?
    increase SID, decrease your FSS
  6. The lower the the Kvp the_______the contrast
    higher
  7. As you clean up compton by using a collimator what is the efect on the scale of the contrast
    the scale will get shorter
  8. If you angle the xray tube against a parallel patient image, how will that affect the distortion on the image?
    you will have shape distortion
  9. What imaging term is defined as the degree of blackening of the image?
    optical density
  10. __________has nothing to do with sharpness of detail
    SOD
  11. Grids do two things to the image
    improve contrast and decrease density
  12. A penumbra is
    the area of unsharpness around the edge of a radiographic image.
  13. Sharpness of detail can be using what two types of crystals?
    smaller and thinner crystals
  14. To maximize your sharpness of detail,_____your OID and __________your FSS
    decrease, decrease
  15. In the line focus principle, the effective focal spot size must be ___________(smaller or larger) than the actual focal sport size to produce better detail
    smaller than
  16. In order to maintain the same relative size of a radiographic image, if the OID is increase you should do what to the FSS and SID
    decrease the FSS and increase the SID
  17. A radiograph will a small number of widely, varying density values is said to possess
    short scale, high contrast
  18. radiographic contrast is defined as
    the amount of difference between any two points
  19. What is the effect of using air gap technique on both contrast and optical density
    contrast will go up (high contrast), optical density will go down (get lighter)
  20. The higher the grid ratio, the ________the contrast
    lower
  21. What is the effect of adding a beam filter to both contrast and optical density
    NO change
  22. The film before it is developed is the
    LATENT IMAGE
  23. Which film processor solution is responsible for converting the latent into the manifest
    developer
  24. What is the name for the situation where the xray beam passes through both layers of the films emulsion and how do you remedy this?
    parallax, use a single emulsion film
  25. Causes of safelight fog include
    same light on that light sensitive filam and using a stronger than recommended wattage
  26. The proper term for the image on a radiograph that can be seen after developement is known as the
    MANIFEST IMAGE
  27. When is the latent image formed?
    when sensitive speck in film is activated
  28. On an automatic film processor, to properly reclaim sliver that has been removed from a film, the reclaiming device must be connected to which processor tank?
    FIXER
  29. The purpose of the developer in an xray film processor is to
    convert exposed AgBr into black metallic silver
  30. What is the biggest cause of automatic film processor jams and the film is said to be damp/sticky, what isn't working?
    hardener
  31. If a film ran through a processor w/o it first being exposed the film apperence will be
    clear or light gray
  32. In analog imaging the front part of the cassette must be made of a material that simultaneously produces two functions
    be opaque to light and radiolucent to xrays
  33. How can you decrease the amount of absorption of the xrays that a patient would get
    increase kvp
  34. According to the NCRP, a 35 yo radiographer can have a lifetime whole body dose limit of how many millirems?
    35000
  35. What radiation QC procedure measures ten repetitive mas settings and states that the densities produced must be identical within the margin of 5%?
    reproducability
  36. The higher the mas setting, the least radiation skin exposure to the patient
    True
  37. How may half values of xray beam filtraton must be added to the primary beam to reduce it's intensity too 25% of original?
    1
  38. What is the NCRP dose limit per month to the embryo-fetus once the pregnancy of an occupational worker has been diagnosed?
    50 mRem
  39. What radiation QC procedure measures identical mAs settings but using the differnt MA-time combinations all of which must be accurate within 10%?
    linearity
  40. The lower the kvp settings, the________the exposure
    69 kvp
  41. What is the NCRP required lead equivalency for all rdiation protection devices that are used to intercept scatter radiation?
    .25 mmPb
  42. What is the yearly dose limit for an occupational worker?
    500 mRems
  43. How accurate must the collimator field light coincide with the acutal xray field produced by the collimators themselves?
    less than 2% of the SID
  44. Compared to analog imaging, digital imaging uses this to reduce patient dosage
    higher kvp settings
  45. The NCRP dose limit for non occupationally exposed persons is _____ the established dosage for occupationally exposed worker
    1/10
  46. What is the smallest subdivision of an element that still has all of the chemical properties of that element
    an atom
  47. The atomic number of an atom is equal to the number of
    the number of protons
  48. What controls how many electrons are boiled off of the cathode and ultimately determine how many xrays are produced
    filament current
  49. The binding energy of an electron depends upon what two factors
    the shell that the electron occupies and the number of protons
  50. What is the smallest subdivision of a compound that still has the same chemical properties of that compound
    molecule
  51. What types of atoms will have the highest binding energies
    atos with a high atomic number
  52. What artificial radiation source provides the highest amount of your avage annual radiation exposure
    medical and dental xrays
  53. what is the name of the stream of electrons as they fly from the cathode over to the anode
    tube current
  54. Which worthless by product is produced 99% of the time when trying to make xrays
    heat
  55. What is the average radiation (natural and manmade) dosage that everyone gets on an annual basis?
    360 mRad
  56. For imaging facilities that are trying to image thick bony structures a _______anode is preferred
    rotating
  57. What is a chemical disruption to the DNA molecule and is the most likely cause of late radiation effects?
    point lesion/rung rekage
  58. What is the most common interaction between xrays and fatty tissues?
    scattering
  59. What is NOT a reason for making the switch from analog to digital?
    eliminate the need for repeat images
  60. A CR plate should be processed_____after exposure
    5-10 minutes
  61. In computer languages, a single digit is called a
    byte
  62. Optically stimulated dosiometers use a ___ to be stimulated
    laser
  63. window width is to _________as window level is to______________
    image contrast, brightness
  64. In DR imaging, what device is often used to creat an almost scatter free xray beam and control the patients dosage
    pre and post collimators
  65. In DR imaging, if an image is considered to be photon deficient the image will appear:
    noisy
  66. Because visual clues are so scare with digital, what must you rely on to assure that your technical factors are following ALARA principles?
    exposure indicators
  67. If you have an exposure field recognition error from overlapping collimation lines, what clue is seen on the image?
    dark areas are visible outside the collimated field
  68. The standard communication link that is required for all xray equipment so that all images can be combined together electronically for universal viewing is
    DIACOM
  69. This is the processing code that despite overexposures or underexposures makes digital images appear visually accpetable
    rescaling
  70. After reading a CR image, to remove any residual image on a PSP plate, the plate must be exposed to
    white light
  71. A miscalculation in your exposure indicator may occur if what happens?
    exposure field recognition error, unexpected attenuators are found in the collimated field
  72. To reduce noisy image on a digital image, you should
    increase collimation, use a grid
  73. due to the dynamic range of digital imagin, this is the biggest alara issue with CR and DR
    dose creep
  74. To produce an image with the highest spatial resolution, the information on a PSP plate should be read with a
    high sampling frequency
  75. A dynamic range gives the radiographer:
    a wide exposure latitude

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