Nutrition ch 2

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darbydo88
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69277
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Nutrition ch 2
Updated:
2011-02-27 16:18:32
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nutrition
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exam 1
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  1. Science of how the body uses food for
    Energy
    Growth
    Development
    Maintenance
    Nutrition
  2. The ability to do work
    energy
  3. Energy is measured in
    kilocalories
  4. Amount of heat produced when food is metabolized in body cells
    calorie
  5. Americans overconsume protein by what percent
    50
  6. Americans ingest an average of how much sugar a day
    24 teaspoons
  7. how much of the us population is overweight
    2/3
  8. What percent of us is obese and sedentary
    30%
  9. five big causes of death
    • Coronary heart disease
    • Some cancers
    • Stroke
    • Diabetes
    • Atherosclerosis
  10. hypercholesterolimia causes (3)
    • stroke
    • coronary heart disease
    • atherosclerosis
  11. 3 keys to healthy diet
    • adequacy
    • variety
    • moderation
  12. recommendations for amounts of
    required nutrients
    DRI (Dietary reference intake)
  13. Set of 4 reference tables
    • Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA)
    • Estimated Average Requirements (EAR)
    • Adequate Intakes (AI)
    • Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (UL)
  14. Average daily dietary intake level that is sufficient to meet the daily nutrient of nearly all healthy individuals in a life stage or gender group
    RDA
  15. A daily nutrient intake that is estimated to meet the requirements of half of the healthy individuals in a life stage or gender group
    EAR
  16. A recommended intake value based on observed and experimentally determined approximations or estimates of nutrient intake by a group of healthy people that are assumed to be adequate
    AI
  17. Used when RDA is not availible
    AI
  18. The highest level of daily nutrient intake that is likely to pose no risk of adverse health effects for almost all people in the general population
    UL
  19. UL's have been established for how many nutrients?
    15 (calcium, copper folate, iron, manganese, magnesium, niacin, phospherous, selenium, Vit. A B6 C D E, and zinc
  20. Adult DRI: Fat
    20-35% of energy
  21. Adult DRI: n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids
    5-10
  22. Adult DRI: n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids
    .6-1.2
  23. Adult DRI: carbs
    45-65
  24. Adult DRI: proteins
    10-35
  25. DRI for cholesterol, trans fatty acids, and saturated fatty acids
    as low as possible
  26. DRI for added sugars
    no more than 25% of total energy
  27. Cornerstone of US federal nutrition policies
    Dietary Guidelines for Americans
  28. ABC's of Dietary Guidelines for Americans
    • Aim for fitness and healthy weight
    • build a healthy base (pyramid)
    • choose sensibly
  29. categories of food pyramid(6)
    grains, vegitables, milk, fruits, meat and beans, oils
  30. top 5 hight fat empty calorie foods
    • fast food
    • mayonnaise
    • chips/microwave popcorn
    • crackers
    • packaged frozen snacks
  31. Sample diet:
    fruit
    vegatables
    whole grains
    low-fat dairy products
    lean meats, fish, beans nuts
    oils
    • 2 cups fruit
    • 2 1/2 cups vegatables
    • 5 servingswhole grains
    • 3 servingslow-fat dairy products
    • 5 ounces lean meats, fish, beans nuts
    • 5 teaspoons oils
  32. keep fats to under...% of cas/day
    35%
  33. saturated fats should be under...%
    10%
  34. cholesterol should be under ....
    300mg
  35. how many grams of whole grans/fiber should you eat a day
    20-30
  36. moderate sugar intake to how many grams
    4g=1tsp
  37. American heart association diet guidelines (8)
    • fat intake <30% of total calories
    • saturated fat <7%
    • Polyunsaturated fat <10%
    • Monounsaturated fats <15% total calories
    • cholesterol <300mg
    • sodium < 2400mg
    • carbs 55-60%
    • adjust calories to maintain weight
  38. American Cancer society diet guidelines (4)
    • choose most foods from plants
    • limit high fat foods
    • be physically active
    • limit alcohol
  39. Diet plan to stop hypertension is called
    DASH
  40. DASH limits sodium to
    2300 mg per day
  41. Dash requires less of 3 foods
    meat, sweets, sugary drinks
  42. DASH requires more of 5
    magnesium, K, Ca, protein, fiber
  43. desirable levels of nutrients for fats, protein, cholesterol, CHO, fiber and sodium
    Daily Reference values (on nutrition lable)
  44. what percent is low
    what percent is high
    • 5%
    • 20%
  45. to have the lable "reduced" "less" or "fewer" the food must contain how much less from the origional
    25%
  46. to be "high" in something the food must contain what percent of daily nutrition
    20%
  47. "light" is allowed on foods that have been reduced by what percent
    50%
  48. you should have 100% of what(5)
    • fiber
    • vit A
    • vit C
    • calcium
    • iron
  49. stay below 100% on what 3
    • fat
    • cholesterol
    • sodium
  50. how many calories are:
    low
    moderate
    high
    • 40
    • 100
    • 400
  51. Net carbs=
    Carbs-fiber
  52. Antioxidants (7)
    • Vit A, C, E
    • beta carotene
    • copper
    • manganese
    • selenium
  53. free radicals overwhelm the normal protective mechanisms and cause damage...this is called
    oxidative stress
  54. oxidative stress can result from 4
    • toxins
    • cigarette smoke
    • disease
    • decreased amt of antioxidants
  55. biologically active substances in plants that give plants their color, order, flavor, and defense systems
    phytochemicals
  56. associated with protection against chronic diseases
    phytochemicals
  57. where are phytochemicals found
    • fruits
    • veggies
    • whole grains
  58. 3 names for functional foods
    • nutraceuticals
    • pharmafoods
    • designer foods
  59. avocados are full of what vit
    A

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