Animals- Biology

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Anonymous
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6930
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Animals- Biology
Updated:
2010-02-14 21:42:56
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biology animals
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Biology- Animals
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  1. What are 3 characteristics of the animal kingdom?
    multicellular, eukaryotic, and heterotrophic
  2. made of of more than one cell
    multicellular
  3. must consume other organisims to get their energy and nutrients
    heterotrophic
  4. used to trace evolutionary relationships among major groups of animals
    cladogram
  5. Which single celled organism most likely gave rise to the first animals?
    animal-like protist
  6. the only family that contains vertebrates is
    Chordata
  7. What are the five classes of vertebrates?
    fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals
  8. What are the nine phyla in the animal kingdom?
    profiera, cnideria, patyhelminthes, nematoda, annelida, mollusca, arthropada, echinodermata, chordata
  9. organisms whose cells have a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles
    eukaryotic
  10. sponges
    Phylum Porifera
  11. Jellyfish
    Phylum Cnideria
  12. Flatworms, tapeworms
    Phylum Platyhelminthes
  13. Roundworms
    Phylum Nematoda
  14. Clams, oysters, squid
    Phylum Mollusa
  15. Earthworms, leeches
    Phylum Annelida
  16. Spiders, insects, lobsters, crabs
    Phylum Arthropoda
  17. Starfish, sand dollars
    Phylum Echinodermata
  18. Fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals
    Phylum Chordata
  19. In arthropods, when the young look like the adult throughout their life. Example: grasshopper
    incomplete metamorphosis
  20. In arthropods and some amphibians, when the young look completely different from the adult. Ex: butterflies, frogs
    complete metamorphosis
  21. What type of fertilization and development (internal vs. external) does a grasshopper have?
    internal fertilization and external development (lay eggs).
  22. What type of fertilization and development (internal vs. external) does an earthworm have?
    external fertilization & development
  23. How does respiration occur in a grasshopper
    through spiracles and a tracheal system
  24. openings on the underside of a grasshopper for gas exchange
    spiracles
  25. series of tubes that transports gasses in a grasshopper
    tracheal system
  26. what type of skeleton and appendages do arthropods have?
    exoskeleton & jointed appendages
  27. wht do arthropods need to do in order to grow?
    shed their exoskeleton
  28. How does respiration occur in an earthworm?
    through their moist skin
  29. having both male and female reproductive organs
    hermaphroditic
  30. The earthworm is hermaphrotic. What is an advantage of this?
    Earthworms can mate with any other worm (don't need to find a male or female) and all worms can produce offspring (not just the females).
  31. How does respiration occur in a fish?
    through gills
  32. What type of fertilization and development (internal vs. external) does a frog have?
    external fertilization & development
  33. How does respiration occur in a frog?
    Lungs and moist skin
  34. What type of fertilization and development (internal vs. external) do reptiles have?
    Internal fertilization and external development (lays eggs)
  35. How does respiration occur in reptiles, birds and mammals?
    Lungs
  36. What type of fertilization and development (internal vs. external) do birds have?
    internal fertilization and external development (lays eggs)
  37. What type of fertilization and development (internal vs. external) do most mammals have?
    Internal fertilization and development
  38. gives birth to "live young"... most mammals (i.e. human, bear, etc)
    placental mammals
  39. mammals that lay eggs, ex: platypus
    monotremes
  40. give birth to live young, but early in development, Ex: kangaroo and koala
    marsupials
  41. why do earthworms and amphibians have to keep their skin moist?
    to help with gas exchange ("breathing" through their skin)
  42. What is a difference between the skin of reptiles and amphibians?
    amphibians skin is smooth and moist and reptile skin is dry and scaly
  43. How many heart chambers do birds and mammals have?
    4-chambers
  44. How many heart chambers do amphibians and some reptiles have?
    3 chambers
  45. What is an advantage of a 4-chamber heart?
    Their is seperation of exygenated and deoxygenated blood so only oxygenated blood is pumped out to the body
  46. animals that rely on the environment to maintain their body temperature (cold-blooded)
    ectothermic
  47. animals that can generate their own heat (warm-blooded)
    endothermic
  48. What classes of animals are ectothermic
    fish, amphibians and reptiles
  49. what classes of animals are endothermic?
    birds and mammals
  50. what is the organization of bodies beginning with organelles?
    organalles, cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, organism
  51. Recognizes & coordinates the body's response to changes in its internal and external environments.
    Nervous system
  52. Supports the body; protects internal organs; allows movement (when combined with a muscular system); stores mineral reserves; site of blood cell production
    skeletal system
  53. system that breaks down food into simpler molecules that can be used by the cells of the body; absorbs food; eliminates waste
    digestive system
  54. Brings oxygen, nutrients, and hormones to cells, fights infection; helps regulate body temperature
    circulatory system
  55. System that provides oxygen for the body and removes carbon dioxide from the body
    respiratory system
  56. Eliminates nitrogen waste (urine) from the body to maintain water balance
    excretory system
  57. works with skeletal system to help with movement; helps to circulate blood and move food through the digestive system
    muscular system
  58. controls growth, development, and metabolism; maintains homeostasis
    endocrine system
  59. protects the body from disease, collects fluid lost from blood vessels and returns the fluid to the circulatory system
    lymphatic system
  60. barrier against infection and injury; helps regulate body temperature; protects against UV rays from the sun
    integumentary system
  61. system that produces reproductive cells (egg or sperm); in females, also nurtures and protects developing embryo
    reproductive system
  62. what body system contains the following organs: brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves?
    nervous system
  63. what body system contains the following organs: bones, cartilage, ligaments, and tendons
    skeletal system
  64. what body system contains the following organs: mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines?
    digestive system
  65. what body system contains the following organs: heart, blood vessels, blood?
    circulatory system
  66. What body system contains the following organs: nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, lungs?
    respiratory system
  67. What body system contains the following organs: kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra?
    excretory system
  68. What body system contains the following organs: thyroid gland, adrenal gland, pancreas, hormones produced?
    endocrine system
  69. what body system contains the following organs: skin, hair, nails, sweat and oil glans?
    integumentary system
  70. What is the external reproductuve structure on the earthworm?
    clitellum
  71. why does the small intestine have tiny folds on the inside of it?
    it increases the surface area of the intestine so more nutrients can be absorbed
  72. small folds on the inside of the small intestine
    villi
  73. Why is there an abundance of blood vessels attached to the outside of the small intestine?
    because nutrients that are absorbed by the small intestine immediately enter the bloodstream and go to the rest of the body
  74. why do frogs and earthworms lay so many eggs?
    Because there is no parental protection so it ensures that some survive.
  75. blood is not contained in a network of vessels and is inside the body cavities
    open circulation
  76. blood travels throughout the body in vessels
    closed circulation
  77. small holes on the earthworm where nitrogen wastes leave the body
    nephridia
  78. what life function is being descrbed: moves materials throughout an organism
    transport
  79. what life function is being described: removal of metabolic (nitrogen) wastes?
    excretion
  80. what life function is being described: maintain homeostasis; helps organisms respond to changes in the environment?
    regulation
  81. what life function is being described: exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide?
    respiration
  82. what life function is being described: breakdown of food and absorption of nutrients?
    digestion/nutrition
  83. what life function is being described: production and growth of offpsring?
    reproduction and development
  84. what is the pathway of food in a frog and fetal pig?
    mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestines, large intestine
  85. what 2 digestive organs does an earthworm have that the frog and fetal pig do not have?
    crop and gizzard
  86. stores food in an earthworm
    crop
  87. grinds of breaks down the food in an earthworm
    gizzard
  88. What animal phylum contains the most # of organisms?
    arthropada
  89. similar parts branch out in all directions from a central line (like the spokes on a bicycle tire).
    radial symmetry
  90. two halves on either side of a central plane are similar
    bilateral symmetry
  91. What animal phyla are asymmetrical?
    phlum porifera
  92. which animal phyla have radial symmetry?
    phylum cnideria and echinodermata
  93. Which animal phyla have bilateral symmetry?
    phylum platyhelmintes, nematoda, annelida, mollusca, arthropada, and chordata

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