Card Set Information
What are 3 characteristics of the animal kingdom?
multicellular, eukaryotic, and heterotrophic
made of of more than one cell
must consume other organisims to get their energy and nutrients
used to trace evolutionary relationships among major groups of animals
Which single celled organism most likely gave rise to the first animals?
the only family that contains vertebrates is
What are the five classes of vertebrates?
fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals
What are the nine phyla in the animal kingdom?
profiera, cnideria, patyhelminthes, nematoda, annelida, mollusca, arthropada, echinodermata, chordata
organisms whose cells have a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles
Clams, oysters, squid
Spiders, insects, lobsters, crabs
Starfish, sand dollars
Fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals
In arthropods, when the young look like the adult throughout their life. Example: grasshopper
In arthropods and some amphibians, when the young look completely different from the adult. Ex: butterflies, frogs
What type of fertilization and development (internal vs. external) does a grasshopper have?
internal fertilization and external development (lay eggs).
What type of fertilization and development (internal vs. external) does an earthworm have?
external fertilization & development
How does respiration occur in a grasshopper
through spiracles and a tracheal system
openings on the underside of a grasshopper for gas exchange
series of tubes that transports gasses in a grasshopper
what type of skeleton and appendages do arthropods have?
exoskeleton & jointed appendages
wht do arthropods need to do in order to grow?
shed their exoskeleton
How does respiration occur in an earthworm?
through their moist skin
having both male and female reproductive organs
The earthworm is hermaphrotic. What is an advantage of this?
Earthworms can mate with any other worm (don't need to find a male or female) and all worms can produce offspring (not just the females).
How does respiration occur in a fish?
What type of fertilization and development (internal vs. external) does a frog have?
external fertilization & development
How does respiration occur in a frog?
Lungs and moist skin
What type of fertilization and development (internal vs. external) do reptiles have?
Internal fertilization and external development (lays eggs)
How does respiration occur in reptiles, birds and mammals?
What type of fertilization and development (internal vs. external) do birds have?
internal fertilization and external development (lays eggs)
What type of fertilization and development (internal vs. external) do most mammals have?
Internal fertilization and development
gives birth to "live young"... most mammals (i.e. human, bear, etc)
mammals that lay eggs, ex: platypus
give birth to live young, but early in development, Ex: kangaroo and koala
why do earthworms and amphibians have to keep their skin moist?
to help with gas exchange ("breathing" through their skin)
What is a difference between the skin of reptiles and amphibians?
amphibians skin is smooth and moist and reptile skin is dry and scaly
How many heart chambers do birds and mammals have?
How many heart chambers do amphibians and some reptiles have?
What is an advantage of a 4-chamber heart?
Their is seperation of exygenated and deoxygenated blood so only oxygenated blood is pumped out to the body
animals that rely on the environment to maintain their body temperature (cold-blooded)
animals that can generate their own heat (warm-blooded)
What classes of animals are ectothermic
fish, amphibians and reptiles
what classes of animals are endothermic?
birds and mammals
what is the organization of bodies beginning with organelles?
organalles, cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, organism
Recognizes & coordinates the body's response to changes in its internal and external environments.
Supports the body; protects internal organs; allows movement (when combined with a muscular system); stores mineral reserves; site of blood cell production
system that breaks down food into simpler molecules that can be used by the cells of the body; absorbs food; eliminates waste
Brings oxygen, nutrients, and hormones to cells, fights infection; helps regulate body temperature
System that provides oxygen for the body and removes carbon dioxide from the body
Eliminates nitrogen waste (urine) from the body to maintain water balance
works with skeletal system to help with movement; helps to circulate blood and move food through the digestive system
controls growth, development, and metabolism; maintains homeostasis
protects the body from disease, collects fluid lost from blood vessels and returns the fluid to the circulatory system
barrier against infection and injury; helps regulate body temperature; protects against UV rays from the sun
system that produces reproductive cells (egg or sperm); in females, also nurtures and protects developing embryo
what body system contains the following organs: brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves?
what body system contains the following organs: bones, cartilage, ligaments, and tendons
what body system contains the following organs: mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines?
what body system contains the following organs: heart, blood vessels, blood?
What body system contains the following organs: nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, lungs?
What body system contains the following organs: kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra?
What body system contains the following organs: thyroid gland, adrenal gland, pancreas, hormones produced?
what body system contains the following organs: skin, hair, nails, sweat and oil glans?
What is the external reproductuve structure on the earthworm?
why does the small intestine have tiny folds on the inside of it?
it increases the surface area of the intestine so more nutrients can be absorbed
small folds on the inside of the small intestine
Why is there an abundance of blood vessels attached to the outside of the small intestine?
because nutrients that are absorbed by the small intestine immediately enter the bloodstream and go to the rest of the body
why do frogs and earthworms lay so many eggs?
Because there is no parental protection so it ensures that some survive.
blood is not contained in a network of vessels and is inside the body cavities
blood travels throughout the body in vessels
small holes on the earthworm where nitrogen wastes leave the body
what life function is being descrbed: moves materials throughout an organism
what life function is being described: removal of metabolic (nitrogen) wastes?
what life function is being described: maintain homeostasis; helps organisms respond to changes in the environment?
what life function is being described: exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide?
what life function is being described: breakdown of food and absorption of nutrients?
what life function is being described: production and growth of offpsring?
reproduction and development
what is the pathway of food in a frog and fetal pig?
mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestines, large intestine
what 2 digestive organs does an earthworm have that the frog and fetal pig do not have?
crop and gizzard
stores food in an earthworm
grinds of breaks down the food in an earthworm
What animal phylum contains the most # of organisms?
similar parts branch out in all directions from a central line (like the spokes on a bicycle tire).
two halves on either side of a central plane are similar
What animal phyla are asymmetrical?
which animal phyla have radial symmetry?
phylum cnideria and echinodermata
Which animal phyla have bilateral symmetry?
phylum platyhelmintes, nematoda, annelida, mollusca, arthropada, and chordata