exam #3

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exam #3
2011-02-27 19:13:27
assessment findings hypokalemia hyperkalemia

s/s hypo-hyper kalemia
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  1. Cardiovascular hypokalemia
    • thready, weak, irregular pulse
    • weak peripheral pulses
    • orthostatic hypotension
  2. cardiovascular hyperkalemia
    • slow, weak, irregular HR
    • decreased blood pressure
  3. respiratory hypokalemia
    • shallow, ineffective respirations that result from profound weakness of the skeltal muscles of respiration
    • diminished breath sounds
  4. respiratory hyperkalemia
    profound weakness of the skeletal muscles leading to respiratory failure
  5. Neuromuscular hypokalemia
    • anxiety, leathary, confusion, coma
    • skeletal muscle weakness, eventaul flaccid paralysis
    • loss of tactile discrimination
    • paresthesias
    • deep tendon hyporeflexia
  6. Neuromuscular Hyperkalemia
    • early: muscle twitches, cramps, paesthesias (tingling and burning followed by numbness in the hands and feet and around the mouth)
    • late: profound weakness, ascending flaccid paralysis in the arms and legs (trunk, head, and respiratory muscles become affected when the serum potassium level reaches a lethal level)
  7. Gastrointestinal hypokalemia
    • decreased motility, hypoactive to absent bowel sounds
    • nausesa, vomitting, constipation, abdominal distention
    • paralytic ileus
  8. Gastrointestinal hyperkalemia
    • increased mobility, hyperactive bowel sounds
    • diarrhea
  9. Labratory findings hypokalemia
    • serum potassium level lower than 3.5 mEq/L
    • ECG changes: ST depression, shallow, flat or inverted T wave, and prominent U wave
  10. Labratory findings hyperkalemia
    • serum potassium level that exceeds 5.1 mEq/L
    • ECG: fall peaked T waves, flat P waves, widened QRS complexes, and prolonged PR intervals