ch 4 nutrition

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darbydo88
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69358
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ch 4 nutrition
Updated:
2011-02-27 21:54:23
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nutrition
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nutrition
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  1. Carbon + water
    carb
  2. carbs have sugars found in
    • grains
    • fruit
    • milk
    • veggies
  3. major source of fuel
    carbs
  4. simplest CHOs
    sugars:fructose, sucrose, glucose, lactose
  5. fxn of carbs
    • Facilitate body processes
    • • Peristalsis, temperature,metabolism
    • Aids in proper fat metabolism
    • Needed for structural components of
    • the body
    • • Collagen, cartilage, bone, nervous tissue
    • Adds palatability to foods
  6. Simple carbs
    • monosaccharides (2-6 carbons)
    • disaccharides(12 carbons)
  7. complex carbs
    polysaccharide (at least 10 sugars)
  8. only nutrient form used by the brain
    monosaccharide
  9. monosaccharides
    • Sweet, soluble in water and can
    • readily pass through cell membrane
  10. The only sugar that provides energy to all cells
    glucose
  11. glucose found in
    • fruits
    • veggies
  12. other names for glucose (3)
    • dextrose
    • blood sugar
    • corn sugar
  13. sweetest monosaccharide
    fructose
  14. fructose comes from
    glucose
  15. fructose is found in
    • fruit
    • honey
  16. least sweet
    lactose
  17. disaccharides
    • maltose
    • sucrose
    • lactose
  18. maltose found in
    • bread making
    • malt sugar
  19. sucrose found in
    • From cane sugar
    • sugar beets
    • Granulated table sugar,
    • molasses,
    • maple syrup/sugar
    • Many fruits and vegetables
  20. lactose found in
    • milk
    • •When fermented, forms lactic acid found in buttermilk and yogurt
  21. complex CHO (made of 10+ monosaccharides)
    • Starches
    • Glycogen
    • Fibers
  22. starches (4)
    • legumes
    • veggies
    • cereal grains
    • roots
  23. after veggies age
    sugar turns into starch (less sweet)
  24. after fruit ages
    starches turn into sugar (sweeter)
  25. excessive glucose is converted into
    glycogen
  26. excess can only be stored for one day..after that what happens?
    stored as fat
  27. nondigestible CHO and Lignin
    dietary fiber
  28. From plants only
    Whole grains, legumes, veggies, fruits,
    seeds, nuts
    dietary fibers
  29. Carrrageenan
    Guar gum
    added for fiber
  30. Cellulose
    Hemicelluloses
    Pectins
    Mucilages
    fiber terms
  31. benefits of fiber
    • Reduces risk of some cancers
    • • Colon
    • • Breast
    • Helps lower LDL and total cholesterol
    • • Reduces risk of heart disease
    • Helps lower blood sugar
    • • Manage diabetes
    • Non-calorie dense
    • Retained in stomach longer
    • • Feel fuller longer
  32. provides no calories or energy
    and cannot be converted to glucose
    fiber
  33. Moves bulk through intestines
    • prevents constipation, hemorrhoids, diverticulosis, colitis
    • Absorbs water; stool softening ability
    Balances pH of intestines to prevent
    microbes from producing cancerous
    substances
    Removes toxic waste through colon faster
    Sources
    Green beans, dark green leafy vegetables
    Fruits and vegetable skins
    Whole grains
    Corn bran, seeds and nuts
    Insoluble/Non-Viscous Fiber
  34. Binds with fatty acids
    Prolongs stomach emptying time so sugar is
    released and absorbed more slowly
    Helps lower LDL and total cholesterol
    • Reduces risk of heart disease
     Helps lower blood sugar
    • Manage diabetes
     Sources:
    • oats/oat bran
    • dried beans/peas
    • nuts, barley, flaxseed
    • some fruits (oranges, apples)
    • carrots
    Soluble/Viscous Fiber
  35. too much fiber causes
    • Excessive bloating
    • Flatulence
    • Diarrhea
    • Decreased vitamin and mineral absorption
  36. the transformation of nonfat food
    materials into body fat
    lipogenase
  37. Regulates the amount of sugar in blood so all cells get the energy they need
    • Glucose source for brain, CNS, RBC, eye
    • Body uses glycogen stores for glucose as
    needed
    Fat storage
    • Excessive energy intake from any source turns glucose to FATS via lipogenesis
    Conversion to other CHOs and amino acids
    Aids in normal fat metabolism
    • Ketones are normal products of lipid metabolism
    Protein-sparing
    • With insufficient CHO intake, body burns protein for fuel diminishing its role in building and repairing tissue
    Provides nutrients for the friendly bacteria in the
    intestinal tract that help digest food
    • Gastrointestinal motility (role of fiber)
    Assists the body absorb calcium
    May help lower cholesterol levels and regulate blood pressure
    CHOs
  38. After eating, blood sugar rises to about
    140 mg/dL
  39. After a night’s fast, blood sugar level is about
    60 to 100 mg/dL.
  40. Blood sugar level increases by
    • • release of glucose from glycogen
    • • synthesis of glucose from glycerol and amino acids
    • • through absorption of sugars from the intestinal tract
  41. The blood glucose level falls as the liver removes glucose for
    • • the synthesis of glycogen
    • • the conversion of glucose to fats
    • • the synthesis of other compounds
  42. lactose intolerance results in 4
    • diarrhea, cramps,
    • gas, halitosis
  43. lactose intolerance more prevelent in (4)
    • • Native Americans
    • • Asians
    • • Hispanics
    • • African-Americans
  44. lactose intolerant people may be deficient in
    • • Calcium
    • • Phosphorous
    • • Riboflavin
    • • Protein
  45. What to eat if lactose intolerant
    • • Fermented dairy products
    •  Yogurt, buttermilk, aged cheeses
    • • Calcium-rich foods
    • Salmon, spinach, kale, broccoli, greens, tofu, almonds, eggs, shrimp, juices
  46. Three components of whole grains
    • • Bran: high in B-complex vitamins, minerals, and fiber
    • • Endosperm: CHO and protein; source of white flour
    • • Germ: contains vitamin E, B vitamins, trace minerals, a little protein, and fat
  47. Failure of insulin production is which diabetes
    type 1
  48. obesity is which type
    type 2
  49. • Rare in healthy people
    • Below 70mg/dl blood (blood glucose)
    Hypoglycemia
  50. • Above 120mg/dl blood (blood glucose)
    Hyperglycemia
  51. The most cariogenic sugar
    sucrose
  52. Sugar alcohols
    • • Sorbitol
    • • Xylitol
    • • Mannitol
  53. Saccharin
    sweet and low formed from coal tar
  54. Aspartame
    • equal
    • nutrasweet
    • metabolised as protein
    • pku kids cant use it
  55. Sucralose
    • splenda
    • 600x sweeter than sugar

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