Chem202 Chap 14 & 15
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Average reaction rate for
- ^ is delta
Stoichiometry and Reaction Rate
reation order and units of k
1st order half life
half life of a first order reaction is independent of the initial concentration of the reactant.
2nd order half life
half life is inversely proportional to initial reactant concentration.
0 order half life
- the reaction rate is directly proportional to the number of molecular collisions per second.
- ratea=number of collisions/s
activation energy Ea
minimum amount of energy required to initiate a chemical reaction.
activated complex or transition state.
when molecules collide in an effective collision. highest amount of potential energy.
unimolecular elementary reaction
- one reactant molecules
bimolecular elementary reaction
- two reactant molecules
termolecular elementary reaction
- three reactant molecules
reaction order for each reactant in an elementary reaction is equal to its stoichiometric coefficient in the chemical equation for that step.
is a substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction without itself being consumed.
the reactant and the catalyst are in different phases. The catalyst is usually a solid and the reactants are either gases or liquids
the reactants and the catalyst are dispersed in a single phase usually liquid
A chemical reaction in which the products can also be consumed to produce reactants, a process known as the revers reaction
the condition where the forward and reverse reactions are occurring at the same rate and there is no net change in the reactant and products concentrations over time
Reaction Quotient (Qc)
(also Kc at equilibrium)
is the product of the product concentrations over the product of the reactant concentrations with each concentration raised to a power equal to the corresponding stoichiometric coefficients in the balanced chemical equation. Law of Mass Action
Equation reversed = 1/Kc1
Equation mulitplied by 2 =(Kc1)2
Two equations added = Kc1*Kc2
Delta n=number of moles of product-number of moles of reactant
raised to the power of the coefficient in front
if Qc<Kc ---Reactant to products
if Qc>Kc ---Products to reactants
- +prod shift left
- -prod shitf right
- +react shift right
- -react shift left
+ pressure-----shift equil to side w/ fewest moles
+volume-----shift equil to side w/ most moles
temp is the only factor that changes the equilibrium constant
catalyst shifts neither the equilibrium or equilibrium constant
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