c17 lecture 3

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08yangwf
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69411
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c17 lecture 3
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2011-02-27 22:18:48
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  1. Taxonomy vs phylogeny
    T: Phenetic organization, based on phenotypes

    P: Based on evolutionary relationships
  2. Polyphasic Taxonomy
    Incorporates various phenetic and phylogenetic information, with 16S RNA analysis
  3. Ferdinand Cohn
    Father of Bacteriology

    Sorted bacteria based on morphology
  4. Robert Koch on bacterial species designation:
    Bacteria that maintain the characteristics when cultured in the same conditions should be designated a species
  5. Biological classification
    D P C O F G S
  6. How do we define species for prokaryotes?
    - Prokaryotes lack sexual reproduction -> cant use interbreeding

    - Collection of strains, housekeeping genes
  7. Biovar
    Differ biochemically and physiologically
  8. Morphovar
    Differ morphologically
  9. Serovar
    Differ in antigenic properties
  10. Type strain
    First strain isolated, used as a reference
  11. Binomial system of nomenclature for microbes
    Genus species

    G. Species
  12. Pathotypes
    Pathogenic strain of bacteria after recieving new genetic information through HGT
  13. Phenetic classification system for microbes
    • Based on as many characteristics as possible
    • Morphological
    • Physiological
    • Ecological
    • Molecular
  14. Ecological characteristics of a microbe
    • Life cycle patterns
    • Symbiotic relationships
    • Pathogenic ability
    • Habitat
    • Growth Requirements
  15. 6 analysis methods of molecular taxonomy
    • 1) Nucleic acid base composition
    • 2) Nucleic acid hybridization
    • 3) Nucleic acid sequencing
    • 4) Genomic fingerprinting
    • 5) Proteins
    • 6) Fatty acids
  16. G+C variation among prokaryotes
    25-80%
  17. G+C variation among a genus
    <10%
  18. Hybridization percentage and interpretation
    • 0-25% = different genera
    • 25-75% = same genus, different species
    • 75-100% = same species
  19. Most powerful and direct method for comparing genes and genomes?
    Nucleic acid sequencing
  20. 3 main problems with phylogeny in microbes
    1) Taxonomy not based on evolutive relationships

    2) Asexual reproduction + HGT

    3) No fossil record to support evolutive taxa

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