Anatomy Chapter 18

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Anatomy Chapter 18
2011-02-27 22:31:04

Skeletal system
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  1. Skeletal system
  2. bony framework of the body
  3. Cartilage
    Nonvascular connective tissue
  4. Joint
    Where bones meet
  5. Hematopoiesis
  6. Process within the skeletal system which forms blood cells.
  7. Osteoblasts
  8. bone building cells
  9. Osteoclasts
  10. bone reabsorbing cells
  11. Osteocytes
  12. mature bone cells
  13. Ossification (calcification)
  14. Complete bone formation
  15. Bone matrix
  16. Mixture of collagen fibers and chemicals
  17. Lamellae
  18. layers of bone
  19. Haversian System
  20. Has canals of veins, arteries, and lymph vessels that penetrate the bone matrix
  21. Bone Marrow
  22. Made up of connective tissue and blood vessels.
  23. Red marrow
  24. responsible for manufacture of red and white blood cells.
  25. Yellow marrow-
  26. Produces some white blood cells
  27. Cartilage
  28. Connective tissue attached to bone
  29. Hyaline Cartilage
  30. covers the ends of bones
  31. Elastic Cartilage
  32. very flexible
  33. Fibrous cartilage
  34. connects bones to other bones at joints
  35. Fossa
  36. a depression or hollow space in a bone for attachments.
  37. Foramen
  38. hole or opening in a bone through which blood vessels and nerves can pass
  39. Sinus
  40. Air-filled cavity in a bone
  41. Fissure
  42. Narrow opening between parts of a bone that allows blood vessels and nerves to pass.
  43. Condyte
  44. Large, rounded, knuckle-like prominence that forms a joint with another bone
  45. Tuberosity
  46. Large, rounded, roughened process that attaches muscles and ligaments to the bone
  47. Fontanel
  48. space between skull bones at birth filled with dense fibrous connective tissue.
  49. Long bones
  50. found in the upper and lower extremities
  51. Short bones
  52. appear in the wrist (carpals) and ankle (tarsals).
  53. Flat bones
  54. found in the skull, ribs, and scapula
  55. Irregular bones
  56. spinal column, sphenoid and sphenoid bones of skull, the sacrum, the coccyx, patella and mandible.
  57. Diaphysis
  58. main shaft of long bone
  59. Epiphysis
  60. expanded ends of long bones
  61. Metaphysis
  62. Flared ends of long bones between the epiphysis and the diaphysis
  63. Epiphyseal plate (growth plate)
  64. layer of cartilage located where the epiphysis meets the mataphysis
  65. Medullary cavity
  66. Cavity where bone marrow is deposited in long bones.
  67. Compact bone
  68. dense bone on the outside of short, flat, and irregular bones.
  69. Axial Skeleton
  70. contains bones of skull, spinal column, ribs, sternum, and hyoid bone ( in throat)
  71. Paranasal sinuses
  72. large spaces within the skull's framework
  73. Articulation
  74. the joining together of flat bones
  75. Sutures
  76. place where articulation occurs
  77. Fontanels
  78. soft spots located between cranial bones
  79. Frontal bone
  80. forms the forehead
  81. Parietal Bones (2)- left and right
  82. -give shape to the top of the cranium
  83. Occipital Bone
  84. forms the back part of the cranial floor
  85. Foramen Magnum
  86. arge opening at the base of the occipital bone where spinal column joins the skull.
  87. Temporal Bones (2)
  88. form the lower sides of the skull
  89. Sphenoid Bone
  90. located behind nose and eye sockets
    -bat bone
  91. Ethmoid Bones
  92. form most of the bony area between the nasal cavity and the eye orbits.
  93. Foramena
  94. smaller openings in the cranial bones through which cranial nerves and blood vessels pass
  95. Mandible
  96. Lower jawbone
  97. Maxillae
  98. upper jawbones
  99. Nasal bones (2)
  100. located side by side
  101. Vomer bone
  102. forms the lower wall between the nostrils
  103. Zygomatic bones
  104. cheekbones
  105. Lacrimal Bones
  106. within the eye orbits along side of nose
  107. Palatine Bones
  108. behind the hard palate
  109. Nasal Conchae
  110. above the roof of the mouth.
  111. Vertebral Column
  112. spinal column
  113. Cervical Vertebrae

    -located in the neck
  114. atlas
  115. first vertebrae, which supports head and allows head to nod
  116. axis
  117. second vertebrae- serves as a pivot when the head turns from side to side
  118. Thoracic Vertebrae

    -posterior portion of each of the 12 rib pairs is attached to these
  119. Lumbar Vertebrae

    • -support the weight of the entire body
    • -are heavier and larger than other vertebrae
  120. Sacrum
    begins as 5 bones that fuse to one

    -located between the 2 hip bones
  121. Coccyx (tailbone)
  122. begins as 4 bones that fuse to 1
  123. Intervertebral discs
  124. discs of cartilage that separate vertebrae from one another
  125. Spinous process
  126. weight bearing, drum shaped structure toward the front of each vertebrae
  127. Sternum
  128. Breastbone
  129. Manubrium
  130. (upper portion) of the sternum- joins with the collarbone and first rib.
  131. Body
  132. (middle portion) of the sternum- next nine ribs attach there.
  133. Xiphoid process
  134. (lower portion) of the sternum– forms attachment for the diaphragm and abdominal muscles.
  135. There are 12 pairs of ribs
  136. -7 pairs of true ribs – attach directly to the sternum
    • -3 pairs of false ribs – connected indirectly to the sternum
    • -2 pairs of floating ribs – attached only to the vertebrae
  137. Appendicular Skeleton
    contains bones of the upper and lower extremities
  138. Pectoral Girdle
  139. forms the shoulder
  140. Clavicle
  141. collarbone
  142. Scapula
  143. shoulder blade
  144. Sternoclavicular joint
  145. where the clavicle and sternum join
  146. Acromion Process
  147. where the scapula and clavicle join
    -site of muscle attachment
  148. Humerus
  149. upper arm
  150. Olecranon Process
  151. Where the humerus joins the bones of the elbow
  152. Radius
  153. thumb side of the forearm
  154. Ulna
  155. little finger side of the forearm
  156. Carpals
  157. 8 small bones of the wrist
  158. Metacarpals
  159. form the hand
  160. Phalanges
  161. bones of the finger
  162. Pelvic Girdle
  163. brings together the hip bones, sacrum and coccyx
  164. ilium
  165. upper portion of pelvis
  166. ischium
  167. lowest portion
  168. pubis
  169. joins hipbones together
  170. Acetabulum
  171. the socket where the femur joins the pelvic girdle.
  172. Femur
  173. thighbone
  174. Patella
  175. kneecap
  176. Tibia
  177. larger and stronger bone of the lower leg
  178. Fibula
  179. smaller bone of the lower leg
  180. Tarsal bones
  181. 7 bones of the ankle
  182. Metatarsals
  183. long bones of the foot
  184. Phalanges
  185. toes
  186. Longitudinal arch
  187. stretches front to back
  188. Transverse arch
  189. goes from side to side
  190. Articulations
  191. joints where 2 or more bones come together
  192. Synarthrosis
  193. no movement
  194. Amphiarthrosis
  195. slight movement
  196. Diarthrosis
  197. free movement
  198. Articular cartilage
  199. lippery type of cartilage that covers the surfaces of two bones that come together
  200. Bursa
  201. a capsule made up of tough, fiberous connective tissue and filled with synovial fluid
  202. Synovial Cavity
  203. filled with synovial fluid
  204. Ball and socket joints
  205. allow widest range of movement
  206. Hinge joints
  207. move only in one direction
  208. Pivot joints
  209. allow for rotation
  210. Saddle joints
  211. have a concave-convex socket
  212. Gliding joints
  213. allow flat surfaces to move across each other
  214. Condyloid joints
  215. oval-shaped bones that fit into an elliptical cavity.
  216. Ligaments
  217. connect bones to bones
  218. Tendons
  219. connect muscles to bones
  220. Flexation
  221. a bending motion that brings 2 neighboring bones closer together
  222. Extension
  223. opposite of flexation and results from an increase in the angle of the bones.
  224. Abduction
  225. when an extremity is moved away from the body.
  226. Adduction
  227. occurs when movement goes toward the midline of the body.
  228. Rotation
  229. when one bone moves or turns on its own axis.
  230. -supination
  231. turning the palm upward
  232. pronation
  233. turning the palm downward
  234. inversion
  235. turning sole of foot inward
  236. eversion
  237. turn sole of foot outward
  238. Circumduction
  239. a combination of flexation, abduction, extension, and adduction, in that order.
  240. Dislocation
  241. the displacement of a joint from its proper position
  242. reduction
  243. returning bones to their proper position
  244. Subluxation
    partial dislocation of a joint
  245. Sprain
    when the ligaments around the joint are stretched, torn, or ruptured
  246. Strain
    when muscles or tendons are stretched beyond their capacity
  247. Fracture
    bone break
  248. Closed reduction
    repairing the break when the skin has not been punctured or does not require surgical opening
  249. Open reduction
    when a bone breaks through the skin