Anatomy Chapter 18
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Anatomy Chapter 18
bony framework of the body
Nonvascular connective tissue
Where bones meet
Process within the skeletal system which forms blood cells.
bone building cells
bone reabsorbing cells
mature bone cells
Complete bone formation
Mixture of collagen fibers and chemicals
layers of bone
Has canals of veins, arteries, and lymph vessels that penetrate the bone matrix
Made up of connective tissue and blood vessels.
responsible for manufacture of red and white blood cells.
Produces some white blood cells
Connective tissue attached to bone
covers the ends of bones
connects bones to other bones at joints
a depression or hollow space in a bone for attachments.
hole or opening in a bone through which blood vessels and nerves can pass
Air-filled cavity in a bone
Narrow opening between parts of a bone that allows blood vessels and nerves to pass.
Large, rounded, knuckle-like prominence that forms a joint with another bone
Large, rounded, roughened process that attaches muscles and ligaments to the bone
space between skull bones at birth filled with dense fibrous connective tissue.
found in the upper and lower extremities
appear in the wrist (carpals) and ankle (tarsals).
found in the skull, ribs, and scapula
spinal column, sphenoid and sphenoid bones of skull, the sacrum, the coccyx, patella and mandible.
main shaft of long bone
expanded ends of long bones
Flared ends of long bones between the epiphysis and the diaphysis
Epiphyseal plate (growth plate)
layer of cartilage located where the epiphysis meets the mataphysis
Cavity where bone marrow is deposited in long bones.
dense bone on the outside of short, flat, and irregular bones.
contains bones of skull, spinal column, ribs, sternum, and hyoid bone ( in throat)
large spaces within the skull's framework
the joining together of flat bones
place where articulation occurs
soft spots located between cranial bones
forms the forehead
Parietal Bones (2)- left and right
-give shape to the top of the cranium
forms the back part of the cranial floor
arge opening at the base of the occipital bone where spinal column joins the skull.
Temporal Bones (2)
form the lower sides of the skull
located behind nose and eye sockets
form most of the bony area between the nasal cavity and the eye orbits.
smaller openings in the cranial bones through which cranial nerves and blood vessels pass
Nasal bones (2)
located side by side
forms the lower wall between the nostrils
within the eye orbits along side of nose
behind the hard palate
above the roof of the mouth.
-located in the neck
first vertebrae, which supports head and allows head to nod
second vertebrae- serves as a pivot when the head turns from side to side
-posterior portion of each of the 12 rib pairs is attached to these
-support the weight of the entire body
-are heavier and larger than other vertebrae
begins as 5 bones that fuse to one
-located between the 2 hip bones
begins as 4 bones that fuse to 1
discs of cartilage that separate vertebrae from one another
weight bearing, drum shaped structure toward the front of each vertebrae
(upper portion) of the sternum- joins with the collarbone and first rib.
(middle portion) of the sternum- next nine ribs attach there.
(lower portion) of the sternum– forms attachment for the diaphragm and abdominal muscles.
There are 12 pairs of ribs
-7 pairs of true ribs – attach directly to the sternum
-3 pairs of false ribs – connected indirectly to the sternum
-2 pairs of floating ribs – attached only to the vertebrae
contains bones of the upper and lower extremities
forms the shoulder
where the clavicle and sternum join
where the scapula and clavicle join
-site of muscle attachment
Where the humerus joins the bones of the elbow
thumb side of the forearm
little finger side of the forearm
8 small bones of the wrist
form the hand
bones of the finger
brings together the hip bones, sacrum and coccyx
upper portion of pelvis
joins hipbones together
the socket where the femur joins the pelvic girdle.
larger and stronger bone of the lower leg
smaller bone of the lower leg
7 bones of the ankle
long bones of the foot
stretches front to back
goes from side to side
joints where 2 or more bones come together
lippery type of cartilage that covers the surfaces of two bones that come together
a capsule made up of tough, fiberous connective tissue and filled with synovial fluid
filled with synovial fluid
Ball and socket joints
allow widest range of movement
move only in one direction
allow for rotation
have a concave-convex socket
allow flat surfaces to move across each other
oval-shaped bones that fit into an elliptical cavity.
connect bones to bones
connect muscles to bones
a bending motion that brings 2 neighboring bones closer together
opposite of flexation and results from an increase in the angle of the bones.
when an extremity is moved away from the body.
occurs when movement goes toward the midline of the body.
when one bone moves or turns on its own axis.
turning the palm upward
turning the palm downward
turning sole of foot inward
turn sole of foot outward
a combination of flexation, abduction, extension, and adduction, in that order.
the displacement of a joint from its proper position
returning bones to their proper position
partial dislocation of a joint
when the ligaments around the joint are stretched, torn, or ruptured
when muscles or tendons are stretched beyond their capacity
repairing the break when the skin has not been punctured or does not require surgical opening
when a bone breaks through the skin