38 GI System

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  1. abdominal assessment order
    • 1. inspection
    • 2. auscultation
    • 3. percussion
    • 4. palpation
  2. high pitched loud rushing sound heard with or without a stethoscope
  3. which quadrant does auscultation in the abdomen begin?
    right lower quadrant
  4. which pulse is BP palpated?
  5. exam positions used to examine the rectum:
    Sims, Knee chest, and Lithotomy
  6. who can be accused of malpractice?
  7. _____ emphasizes the clients right to self determination
    advance directives
  8. the digestive system is also known as the:
    gastrointestinal system or alimentary system
  9. what is the function of the digestive system
    to break down complex food into simple nutrients that the body can absorb and turn into energy
  10. where does digestion begin?
    the mouth
  11. small ball of food is known as
  12. hollow muscular tube that is about 10 inches long
  13. A coordinated rythmic contraction of the muscles that pushes the bolus through the esophagus
  14. _____ is also known as the cardiac sphincter that relaxes adn allows food to pass into the stomach
    lower esophageal sphincter
  15. a j-shaped muscular organ located beneath the diaphragm
  16. two gastric juices that are secreted by the stomach
    • hydrocholoric acid
    • pepsinogen
  17. a semiliquid mass
  18. what is the average time it takes for the stomach to empty?
    3 to 4 hours
  19. what is the easiest thing for the stomach to digest?
  20. what is the hardest thing for the stomach to digest
  21. three parts of the small intestine
    duodenum, jejunum, ileum
  22. part of the small intestine that is responsible for absorbing nutrients from the chyme
  23. part of the small intestine that is responsible for absorbing fat, protein adn carbohydrates
  24. part of the small intestines that is responsible for absorbing salts
  25. another name for large intestine
  26. parts of the large intestine include
    • ascending colon
    • transverse colon
    • descending colon
    • sigmoid colon
  27. responsible for absorbing water, electrolytes and bile salts
    large intestine
  28. three accessory organs
    pancreas, gallbladder and liver
  29. a fish shaped organ that has both endocrine and exocrine functions
  30. endocrine functions to produce ____ & _____ to regulate blood sugar level
    glucagon & insulin
  31. ____ produces enzymes such as amylase, lipase, and protease
  32. enzyme that converts carbs into glucose
  33. enzyme that aids in fat digestion
  34. enzyme that breaks down protein
  35. the largest glandular organ in the body
  36. liver function examples:
    produce heparin, filter blood and destroy bacteria, manufacture cholesterol, produce adn secrete bile, detoxify poisonous substances
  37. where is bile bile produced
  38. bile acts as a _________
    fat emulsifier
  39. pearshaped sac attached to the underside of the liver
  40. ____ stores and concentrates bile until it is needed by the small intestine
  41. painful condition characterized by inflammation and ulcerations in the mouth
  42. also called banding, involves placing a rubber band tie or O-ring on the varix
    esophageal ligation
  43. vomiting blood
  44. bloody stool
  45. inflammation of the stomach mucosa
  46. GI effects of aging
    • decrease peristalsis
    • oral changes
    • decrease enzyme
    • decrease saliva
  47. stomatitis treatment
    antibiotics, analgesics, and monitor fluid intake
  48. gastric secretions flow upward into esophagus
  49. Pt.s with GERD should avoid what types of food
    • Acidic
    • Fatty
    • Fried
  50. what should the nurse observe with Pt.'s with GERD
    melena (black tarry stool) and pain
  51. this disorder is characterized by pain 1-2 hours after eating, eating does not relieve pain, wt. loss occurs
    peptic ulcer
  52. what is the treatment for ulcers
    antacids, bismuth, proton pump inhibitors
  53. where will the person with appendicitis have pain
    RLQ (assess mcburney's point)
  54. what type of diet is encouraged for diverticulosis
    high fiber diet; stool softeners
  55. inflammation that occurs anywhere throughout the colon and small inestine.

    s/s is and. pain & bloody diarhea
    Crohn's disease
  56. this disease has no organic cause and treatment is diet and medication.

    s/s is cramping, and. pain, bloating, constipation, and diarrhea
    irritable bowel syndrome
  57. s/s of of this disease - epigastric pain radiating to the back, nausea, anorexia, fever, and vomiting

    treatment: IV hydration, berets, NPO, medication
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38 GI System
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