SKIN AND BODY MEMBRANES

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Anonymous
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69427
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SKIN AND BODY MEMBRANES
Updated:
2011-02-27 23:42:19
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BIOL
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Test 2 study notes
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  1. ORGANS
    groups of tissues working together to perform a common function
  2. 2 DIFFERENT TYPES OF TISSUES:
    • Epithelial
    • Connective
  3. 4 DIFFERENT KINDS OF MEMBRANES IN THE BODY:
    • Mucous
    • Serous
    • Synovial
    • Cutaneous
  4. What is mucous and its function?
    Mucous- lines passages that opens to the exterior of body. Ex: squamous, or columnar epithelium

    Functions: traps particles; coats olfactory receptors; lubricate foods in mouth; protects lining of stomach & intestine from digestive juice.
  5. What is serous & its functions?
    Serous- lines closed cavities of the body. Ex: simple squamous epithelium

    • Functions: secretes serous fluid for lubriation
    • thorax-pleura
    • abdominal-peritoneum
    • heart-pericardium
  6. What is synovial & its functions?
    Synovial- lines joint cavities. Ex: connective tissues only

    • Functions: secretes fluid=synovial fluid- reduces friction at moveable joints
    • Also forms fluid filled sacs around joints=bursae-reduces friction of mucles, tendon and legaments moving
  7. What is cutaneous & its functions?
    • Cutaneous- is the integumentary systems also called the skin.
    • The largest organ in our body.
    • Covers outer layer and surface of the body.
  8. Integumentary System (Skin)
    • considered an organ or an organ system.
    • body's largest organ.
  9. General function of Integumentary system (Skin)
    • Acts as a protective barrier
    • Temperature homeostasis
    • Excretion of metabolic wastes
    • Sense of touch
    • Synthesis of Vitamin D
  10. Layers of Skin
    • Epidermis
    • Dermis
    • Hypodermis
  11. Epidermis
    • Avascular-no direct blood supply
    • Stratified squamous epithelium
    • Lower layer living cells; upper layer dead filled with keratin
    • Subdivided into 5 identifiable layer
    • Stratum Basale- lowermost layer of epidermis; single cell layer thick
    • Stratum Corneum- thickest of all layers; thickness of epidermis; dead cells completed filled with keratin; water resistant; main protection against biological and chemical assult
  12. Dermis (hide)
    • Thickest layer in skin.
    • Strong, flexible, connective tissues
    • Gives skin its strength and resilience
    • Gel-like matrix
    • Rich in nerves, receptor, blood vessels, lymph vessels
    • Hair follicles and sweat glands
    • 2 layers:
    • papillary layer (upper)
    • reticular layer (lower)
  13. Hypodermis (subcutaneous)
    • Fat tissues
    • below skin
  14. Skin Color
    • Due to combination of 3 different pigments
    • 1. melanin- yellow, orange, brown or black pigments; racial shades due mainly to kinds and amount of melanin pigments
    • 2. carotene- in stratum corneum and hypodermis layer
    • 3. hemoglobin- blood of skin capillaries
  15. Skin colors and textures in diagnosis:
    • Cyanosis= bluish cast--> poor oxygenation
    • erythema= redness--> emotional, hypertension, inflammation
    • Jaundice= yellowing--> liver disorder, bile pigments in blood.
  16. Derivitives of Skin:
    • Hair- heavily keratinixed; consist of shaft, root, follicle, papillae, arrector pili, oil glands, hair receptor; color of hair depends on kinds of and amount of melanin
    • Nails- scale like modification of epidermis
    • Skin glands- oil gland, sweat gland, mammary gland (milk) ceruminous gland (ear wax)
  17. Skin Imblances and Aging
    • Burn- too much sunlight or heat. 1st degree-surface layer of skin is shed; 2nd degree-deep injury, blisters form as fluid builds up; 3rd degree- full thickness of skin is destroyed, dehydration, susceptible to infections, extend of burn damage estimated by rule of 9's
    • Skin cancer - caused by UV, xray or radiaiton
    • Types of cancer: actinic keratosis; basal cell carcinoma; squamous cell carcinoma; maliganant melanoma

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