APP - Respiratory

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agatton
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APP - Respiratory
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2011-06-12 17:45:56
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Term 7 APP review questions 70 of 99
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  1. 1) Which of the following is NOT considered a function of the respiratory system?
    A) regulation of acid base balance
    B) production of red blood cells
    C) filtering inspired air
    D) transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide to tissue cells
    E) intake of oxygen and elimination of carbon dioxide
    Answer: D) transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide to tissue cells
  2. 2) Which of the following is NOT a function of the nose?
    A) warming of incoming air
    B) acting as a resonating chamber for speech
    C) filtering incoming air
    D) detecting olfactory stimuli
    E) gas exchange
    Answer: E) gas exchange
  3. 3) Which of the following lists the structures in the correct order of air flow?
    A) trachea, laryngopharynx, nasopharynx, oropharynx, larynx
    B) nasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngopharynx, trachea, larynx
    C) nasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngopharynx, larynx, trachea
    D) oropharynx, laryngopharynx, nasopharynx, larynx, trachea
    E) nasopharynx, laryngopharynx, oropharynx, larynx, trachea
    Answer: C) nasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngopharynx, larynx, trachea
  4. 4) Air pressure in the middle ear is equalized via the auditory tube, which opens into the:
    A) nasal cavity.
    B) maxillary sinus.
    C) nasopharynx.
    D) oropharynx.
    E) laryngopharynx.
    Answer: C) nasopharynx.
  5. 5) The vocal folds are part of the:
    A) nasal cavity.
    B) laryngopharynx.
    C) trachea.
    D) larynx.
    E) lungs.
    Answer: D) larynx.
  6. 6) The function of the epiglottis is to:
    A) hold the pharynx open during speech.
    B) produce surfactant.
    C) close off the nasal cavity during swallowing.
    D) close off the larynx during swallowing.
    E) vibrate to produce sound as air passes over it.
    Answer: D) close off the larynx during swallowing.
  7. 7) The trachea extends from the:
    A) larynx to vertebra T5.
    B) soft palate to the hyoid bone.
    C) atlas to vertebra C7.
    D) epiglottis to the thyroid cartilage.
    E) foramen magnum to vertebra C5.
    Answer: A) larynx to vertebra T5.
  8. 8) C shaped cartilage rings support the:
    A) laryngopharynx.
    B) larynx.
    C) trachea.
    D) tertiary bronchi.
    E) All of these are supported by C shaped rings.
    Answer: C) trachea.
  9. 9)What is the anatomic name of the structure known as the Adam’s apple?
    A) Cricoid cartilage
    B) Epiglottis
    C) Fauces
    D) Pharynx
    E) Thyroid cartilage
    Answer: E) Thyroid cartilage
  10. 10) The trachea and bronchi
    A) Move as a result of impulses arising in the cerebrum
    B) Have “rings” of cartilage in their walls
    C) Are collapsed during a normal breathing cycle
    D) Move partially by peristalsis
    E) Help to lower the diaphragm during inhalation
    Answer: B) Have “rings” of cartilage in their walls
  11. 11) The cough reflex is triggered by irritation of an important medical landmark called the:
    A) carina.
    B) fauces.
    C) cardiac notch.
    D) cricoid cartilage.
    E) internal choanae.
    Answer: A) carina.
  12. 12. Place the following structures of the respiratory tree in order, considering how air enters the tree:
    1. Secondary bronchi
    2. Bronchioles
    3. Alveolar ducts
    4. Primary bronchi
    5. Respiratory bronchioles
    6. Alveoli
    7. Terminal bronchioles
    A. 2,4,1,7,5,3,6.
    B. 4,1,2,7,5,3,6.
    C. 1,4,3,5,6,3,6.
    D. 2,4,7,3,6,1,5.
    E. 1,2,3,4,5,6,7.
    • Answer: B
    • Primary bronchi
    • Secondary bronchi
    • Bronchioles
    • Terminal bronchioles
    • Respiratory bronchioles
    • Alveolar ducts
    • Alveoli
  13. 13. The roof of the nasal cavity is formed by the
    A. Superior concha
    B. Middle concha
    C. Ethmoid bone
    D. Nasal bones.
    E. Frontal bones
    Answer: C) Ethmoid bone
  14. 14) What is normally found between the visceral and parietal layers of the pleura?
    A) the lungs
    B) venous blood
    C) serous fluid
    D) air
    E) lymph
    Answer: C) serous fluid
  15. 15) A function of type II alveolar cells is to:
    A) help control what passes between squamous epithelial cells of the alveoli.
    B) produce surfactant.
    C) act as phagocytes.
    D) produce mucus in the upper respiratory tract.
    E) store oxygen until it can be transported into the blood.
    Answer: B) produce surfactant.
  16. 16) The respiratory membrane through which gases diffuse includes ALL of the following EXCEPT :
    A) type I alveolar cells.
    B) type II alveolar cells.
    C) capillary endothelium.
    D) an epithelial basement membrane.
    E) a layer of smooth muscle.
    Answer: E) a layer of smooth muscle.
  17. 17) Several small alveoli merge to form one single, larger air space. This results in a(n):
    A) increased rate of gas exchange due to an increased volume of air within the alveolus.
    B) increased rate of gas exchange due to increased partial pressure of oxygen and decreased partial pressure of carbon dioxide within the alveolus.
    C) decreased rate of gas exchange due to decreased partial pressure of oxygen and decreased partial pressure of carbon dioxide within the alveolus
    D) decreased rate of gas exchange due to a decrease in surface area.
    E) decreased rate of gas exchange due to an increase in the thickness of the respiratory membrane.
    Answer: D) decreased rate of gas exchange due to a decrease in surface area.
  18. 18) Boyle's law states that:
    A) at a constant temperature, the volume of a gas varies inversely with the pressure.
    B) at a constant pressure, the volume of a gas is directly proportional to the temperature.
    C) the rate of diffusion is directly proportional to the surface area of the membrane.
    D) in a mixture of gases each gas exerts its own partial pressure.
    E) at a constant temperature, the volume of a gas is directly proportional to the pressure.
    Answer: A) at a constant temperature, the volume of a gas varies inversely with the pressure.
  19. 19) During normal resting pulmonary ventilation, ALL of the following are TRUE EXCEPT :
    A) the phrenic nerve stimulates contraction of the diaphragm.
    B) intrapleural pressure increases above atmospheric pressure during exhalation.
    C) air comes in during inspiration because alveolar pressure falls below atmospheric pressure.
    D) thoracic volume increases as the diaphragm contracts during inspiration.
    E) the diaphragm forms a dome as it relaxes.
    Answer: B) intrapleural pressure increases above atmospheric pressure during exhalation.
  20. 20) Which of the following muscles helps increase the size of the thoracic cavity during forced inspiration?
    A) external oblique
    B) external intercostals
    C) internal oblique
    D) internal intercostals
    E) pectoralis major
    Answer: B) external intercostals
  21. 21) Airway resistance is affected primarily by the:
    A) amount of surfactant.
    B) thickness of the cartilage in the bronchial wall.
    C) amount of elastic tissue in the lungs.
    D) diameter of the bronchioles.
    E) partial pressure of each type of gas in inspired air.
    Answer: D) diameter of the bronchioles.
  22. 22) Surface tension exists in alveoli because:
    A) surfactant is very sticky.
    B) elastic fibers in the basement membrane form linkages that collapse alveoli.
    C) movement of gas molecules within alveoli creates electrical charges that attract each other.
    D) polar water molecules are more strongly attracted to each other than to gas molecules in the air.
    E) polar water molecules are more strongly attracted to gas molecules in the air than to each other.
    Answer: D) polar water molecules are more strongly attracted to each other than to gas molecules in the air.
  23. 23) Compliance is affected primarily by the amount of elastic tissue in the lungs and the:
    A) amount of surfactant.
    B) thickness of the cartilage in the bronchial wall.
    C) partial pressure of oxygen in inspired air.
    D) diameter of the bronchioles.
    E) temperature of inspired air.
    Answer: A) amount of surfactant.
  24. 24. When the diaphragm contracts
    A. The size of the chest cavity increases
    B. The lungs expand to fill the extra space in the chest cavity
    C. Air from outside rushes into the lungs
    D. Intrathoracic pressure decreases
    E. All answers above are correct.
    Answer: E. All answers above are correct.
  25. 25) The normal resting minute volume is:
    A) 6 liters/minute.
    B) 500 mL/minute.
    C) 4.5 liters/minute.
    D) 1200 mL/minute.
    E) 3.6 liters/minute.
    Answer: A) 6 liters/minute.
  26. 26) The minute ventilation volume for someone whose tidal volume equal 450 mL, whose dead space air equal 150 mL, and whose respiratory rate is 15 respirations per minute is:
    A) 2250 mL/min.
    B) 4500 mL/min.
    C) 6750 mL/min.
    D) 9000 mL/min.
    E) There is not enough nformation to calculate the alveolar ventilation rate.
    Answer: C) 6750 mL/min.
  27. 27) The alveolar ventilation rate for someone whose tidal volume equal 450 mL, whose dead space air equal 150 mL, and whose respiratory rate is15 respirations per minute is:
    A) 2250 mL/min.
    B) 4500 mL/min.
    C) 6750 mL/min.
    D) 9000 mL/min.
    E) There is not enough information to calculate the alveolar ventilation rate.
    Answer: B) 4500 mL/min.
  28. 28) The residual volume is the amount of air:
    A) remaining in the lungs after the lungs collapse.
    B) that can be inhaled above tidal volume.
    C) remaining in the lungs after forced expiration.
    D) contained in air spaces above the alveoli.
    E) that can be exhaled above tidal volume.
    Answer: C) remaining in the lungs after forced expiration.
  29. 29) The tidal volume is the:
    A) volume of air the lungs can hold when maximally inflated.
    B) volume of air moved in and out of the lungs in a single quiet breath.
    C) percentage of alveolar air that is water vapor.
    D) sum of the inspiratory and expiratory reserve volumes.
    E) volume of air left in the lungs after a forced expiration.
    Answer: B) volume of air moved in and out of the lungs in a single quiet breath.
  30. 30) Which of the following refers to the amount of air that can be maximally inspired after a maximal expiration
    A. Expiratory reserve volume
    B. Inspiratory reserve volume
    C. Inspiratory capacity
    D. Vital capacity
    E. All answers are correct.
    Answer: D) Vital capacity
  31. 31) On a very humid day, people with chronic respiratory diseases may experience greater difficulty breathing because:
    A) they are dehydrated.
    B) atmospheric pressure is much lower, so respiratory gradients are decreased.
    C) water vapor contributes a greater partial pressure to inhaled air, thus interfering with normal gradients of other respiratory gases.
    D) the water vapor condenses within the alveoli.
    E) the water vapor decreases the solubility of oxygen.
    Answer: C) water vapor contributes a greater partial pressure to inhaled air, thus interfering with normal gradients of other respiratory gases.
  32. 32) Dalton's Law states that:
    A) at a constant temperature, the volume of a gas varies inversely with the pressure.
    B) at a constant pressure, the volume of a gas is directly proportional to the temperature.
    C) the rate of diffusion is directly proportional to the surface area of the membrane.
    D) in a mixture of gases each gas exerts its own partial pressure.
    E) at a constant temperature, the volume of a gas is directly proportional to thepressure.
    Answer: D) in a mixture of gases each gas exerts its own partial pressure.
  33. 33) Where would you expect to find the highest partial pressure of carbon dioxide?
    A) in the atmosphere
    B) in pulmonary arteries
    C) in pulmonary veins
    D) in alveolar air
    E) in the intracellular fluid
    Answer: E) in the intracellular fluid
  34. 34) The reason the gradients for carbon dioxide can be smaller that those for oxygen and still meet the body's gas exchange needs is that:
    A) carbon dioxide is a smaller molecule than oxygen.
    B) carbon dioxide is more water soluble than oxygen.
    C) carbon dioxide receives assistance crossing membranes from a carrier molecule.
    D) much of the oxygen, but not the carbon dioxide, is consumed by red blood cells during transport.
    E) oxygen forms ions once it enters the alveoli, and the electrical charges slow its movement across membranes.
    Answer: B
    Answer: B) carbon dioxide is more water soluble than oxygen.
  35. 35) Expired air has a greater oxygen content than alveolar air because:
    A) more oxygen diffuses in across the mucosa of the bronchioles and bronchi.
    B) newly inspired air is entering as expired as it is leaving.
    C) oxygen is being generated by microbes in the upper respiratory tract.
    D) alveolar air mixes with air in the anatomic dead space on its way out.
    E) some carbon dioxide is converted to oxygen in respiratory passages.
    Answer: D
    Answer: D) alveolar air mixes with air in the anatomic dead space on its way out.
  36. 36) Most oxygen is transported in blood by:
    A) the heme portion of hemoglobin.
    B) the globin portion of hemoglobin.
    C) simply dissolving in plasma.
    D) conversion to bicarbonate ion.
    E) any type of plasma protein.
    Answer: A) the heme portion of hemoglobin.
  37. 37) You would expect the partial pressure of oxygen to be highest in the:
    A) pulmonary arteries.
    B) pulmonary veins.
    C) hepatic portal vein.
    D) intracellular fluid.
    E) interstitial fluid.
    Answer: B
    Answer: B) pulmonary veins.
  38. 38) If the pH of blood and interstitial fluid rises within homeostatic range, then:
    A) more oxygen can combine with hemoglobin.
    B) less oxygen can stay attached to hemoglobin.
    C) the level of hydrogen ions in these fluids has increased.
    D) the increase was caused by an elevated partial pressure of carbon dioxide.
    E) respiratory rate will increase to compensate.
    Answer: A
    Answer: A) more oxygen can combine with hemoglobin.
  39. 39) To say that hemoglobin is fully saturated means that:
    A) the red blood cells contain as many hemoglobin molecules as possible.
    B) oxygen is attached to both the heme and the globin portions of the molecule.
    C) it is carrying both oxygen and carbon dioxide simultaneously.
    D) some molecule other than oxygen is attached to the oxygen binding sites on hemoglobin.
    E) there is an oxygen molecule attached to each of the four heme groups.
    Answer: E) there is an oxygen molecule attached to each of the four heme groups.
  40. 40) Which of the following would be TRUE if the oxygen hemoglobin dissociation curve is shifted to the right?
    A) Partial pressure of carbon dioxide is increased.
    B) pH is increased.
    C) Temperature is decreased.
    D) Levels of BPG are decreased.
    E) Partial pressure of oxygen is decreased.
    Answer: A
    Answer: A) Partial pressure of carbon dioxide is increased.
  41. 41) In metabolically active tissues you would expect:
    A) the percent saturation of hemoglobin will be less than it is near the lungs.
    B) the partial pressure of oxygen will be higher than in the alveoli.
    C) the pH will be slightly higher than it is in the fluid close to the lungs.
    D) the partial pressure of carbon dioxide will be at its lowest point.
    E) All of these are correct.
    Answer: A) the percent saturation of hemoglobin will be less than it is near the lungs.
  42. 42) If the partial pressure of carbon dioxide is decreasing, then:
    A) the partial pressure of oxygen must be increasing.
    B) the pH will also be decreasing.
    C) the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen is decreasing.
    D) there is an increase in the rate of the reaction converting carbonic acid into water and carbon dioxide.
    E) there is an increase in the rate of the reaction converting carbonic acid into hydrogen ion and bicarbonate ion.
    Answer: D) there is an increase in the rate of the reaction converting carbonic acid into water and carbon dioxide.
  43. 43) BPG is a substance that:
    A) is responsible for the detergent activity of surfactant.
    B) catalyzes the conversion of carbon dioxide to bicarbonate ion.
    C) is produced during glycolysis in erythrocytes and increases the dissociation of oxygen from hemoglobin.
    D) inhibits the activity of the central chemoreceptors to prolong inspiration.
    E) binds extra oxygen onto fetal hemoglobin.
    Answer: C) is produced during glycolysis in erythrocytes and increases the dissociation of oxygen from hemoglobin.
  44. 44) Hemoglobin will tend to bind more oxygen at a given partial pressure of oxygen if:
    A) the partial pressure of carbon dioxide is increased.
    B) the temperature is increased.
    C) the pH is increased.
    D) BPG concentration increases.
    E) the concentration of hydrogen ions increases.
    Answer: C) the pH is increased.
  45. 45) High partial pressure of carbon dioxide favors the formation of:
    A) BPG.
    B) carbaminohemoglobin.
    C) chloride ions.
    D) oxyhemoglobin.
    E) carbon monoxide.
    Answer: B) carbaminohemoglobin.
  46. 46) Carbonic acid is produced when:
    A) oxygen combines with bicarbonate ion.
    B) carbon dioxide combines with bicarbonate ion.
    C) carbon dioxide combines with water.
    D) oxygen and carbon dioxide combine.
    E) carbon dioxide attached to hemoglobin.
    Answer: C) carbon dioxide combines with water.
  47. 47) Most carbon dioxide is transported in blood by:
    A) the heme portion of hemoglobin.
    B) the globin portion of hemoglobin.
    C) simply dissolving in plasma.
    D) conversion to bicarbonate ion.
    E) any plasma protein.
    Answer: D) conversion to bicarbonate ion.
  48. 48) The basic pattern of breathing is set by nuclei of neurons located in the:
    A) pons.
    B) diaphragm.
    C) medulla oblongata.
    D) lungs.
    E) thoracic region of the spinal cord.
    Answer: C) medulla oblongata.
  49. 49) The apneustic and pneumotaxic areas are located in the:
    A) pons.
    B) diaphragm.
    C) medulla oblongata.
    D) lungs.
    E) thoracic region of the spinal cord.
    Answer: A) pons.
  50. 50. An enzyme that speeds the reaction of carbon dioxide and water is
    A. Carbonic decarboxylase
    B. Carbonic carboxylase
    C. Carbonic anhydrase
    D. Carbonic dehydrogenase
    Answer: C. Carbonic anhydrase
  51. 51. Average:
    Vital capacity
    4800ml
  52. 52. Average:
    Tidal volume
    500ml
  53. 53. Average:
    Total Lung volume
    6000ml
  54. 54. Average:
    Functional residual capacity
    2400ml
  55. 55. Tidal volume x respirations per minute =
    Minute respiratory volume
  56. 56. Expiratory reserve capacity + residual volume =
    Functional residual volume/capacity
  57. 57. (tidal volume - anatomic dead space) x respirations per minute =
    Alveolar ventilation rate
  58. 58. Tidal volume + inspiratory reserve volume + expiratory reserve volume =
    Vital capacity
  59. 59. "Pressure of a gas in a closed container is inversely proportional to volume in container"
    Boyles’s Law
  60. 60. "Each gas in a mixture of gases exerts its own pressure as sit no other gases were present"
    Dalton’s Law
  61. 61. "Quantity of a gas that will dissolve in a liquid is proportional to the partial pressure of the gas"
    Henry’s Law
  62. 62. "The amount of CO2 that can be transported in the blood is influenced by the percent saturation of hemoglobin with oxygen"
    Haldane Effect
  63. 63. Establish the basic rhythm of breathing
    Inspiratory area
  64. 64. Prolongs inspiration
    Apneustic area
  65. 65. Transmits inhibitory impulses to inspiratory area
    Pneumotaxic area
  66. 66. Located in the pons, influences breathing
    Apneustic and Pneumotaxic areas
  67. 67. This condition is caused by a low PO2 in arterial blood
    Hypoxia
  68. 68. Too little hemoglobin present in blood is known as:
    Anemic hypoxia
  69. 69. Cyanide poisoning causes this condition:
    Histotoxic hypoxia
  70. 70. Reduced flow of blood to a given area of body.
    Ischemic hypoxia

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