Four basic underlying factors to the construct of intelligence
NURTURIST view of language development
Children learn to speak through exposure to adult speech.
Tendency for initial information to carry more weight than information received later.
Kochanska development of conscience
related to Parenting Style and Child's Temparement
Piaget's Moral Development
Related to Cognitive Development
Categories of Seizures
a. Partial (electrical abnormalities in a focal area of the brain)
b. Generalized (electrical abnormalities throughout the brain)
a. Simple Partial: size of the affected area can be as small as a thumb or half of the body.
-Pt remains conscious during the seizure and can later describe it in detail.
b. Complex Partial: begin with a few minutes of disorientation then staggering, purposeless movements and aimless wandering.
-Loss of consciousness
Remembering that one had planned to do something at a particular time.
Implicit or non-declarative
procedures that are remembered automatically without conscious awareness (e.g., riding a bike)
Involves conscious recollection of information or experience
2 types of declarative memory
1. episodic : autobiographical events
2 semantic: meaning of words and facts
Adjusting to reality demands by reorganizing, modifying and expanding cognitive structures.
E.g., adding a 2nd floor
Taking in a new experience and incorporating it into existing cognitive structure
e.g., putting books on shelf
must be kept for 6 yrs. when it was created or when it was last in effect
Malnutrition during fetal period results in
decrease number of brain cells
After birth trauma
can result in reduced number of axonal or dendritic growth
turn back onto the self what they would like do to
others. Can result in self-destructive behavior.
People distance themselves from their feelings through
distraction, humor, generalization and asking questions rather than
-people have inborn capacities for purposive,
-pathology are thought to be due to incongruence between
the self (true feelings) and experience (ability to be aware of these
feelings and express them to others).
-empathy, warm and genuineness
Birth to 7 mos
Temporal sequence is the only conception of causality.
Transference is a parataxic distortion
causal sensation, logical and
analytical thinking and ability to predict cause from knowledge of
Gay Identity Model
Sensitization (Gay Model)
Pre-pubescent. Feels different from peers and ultimately internalizes a negative self-concept
Confusion (Gay model)
Around age 18. attempt to become heterosexual
Assumption (Gay Model)
Manage social stigma. increased contact with other gays and lesbians.
Acknowledging homosexual identity while having negative attitudes
Commitment (Gay Model)
Integration of homosexual identity
Ritalin (side effects)
loss of appetite, insomnia, headaches, GI distress, sedation and dry mouth
Lithium (side effect)
Weight gain and tremors
Use forced-choice format,. Rater selects adjectives from a pairs of equally desirable or undesirable choices
based on critical incidents (hypothetical situations)
Focus on aspects that are not central to the message, but rather are peripheral to it, such as the speaker's appearance, attractiveness, eloquence and expertise
Message elaboration. Person pays attention to the message and thinks deeply about the relevant information
Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Approach
Arithmetic and Digit Span
Both load on the working memory
-Affected by ACUTE hearing infection
Cannot COMPREHEND language, but speak fluently
Has difficulty repeating verbal task
Difficulties in articulation, changes in prosody and some difficulties in comprehension
Connection between Broca's and Wernicke's is affected.
Intact comprehension and fluency but cannot Repeat words.
Best predictor of adolescent alcohol use
Level of alcohol use by parents and peers
when new info interferes with the recall of PREVIOUSLY learned info
Social facilitation occurs most frequently when the task is
SIMPLE, Familiar, Routine
Most powerful memory aid
Which arithmetic operation affect the mean
Addition and Subtraction
Which arithmetic operation affect the SD and the variance
Multiplication and Division
Sending bills to collection agency
ETHICAL as long as the patient is informed first. It is preferable, though not necessary, to inform the patient of your policy at the outset of therapy
Best tx for elderly patients with paranoia
When behavior has no beginning or end
When a behavior occurs infrequently
Consistently linked to Genetic Factors.
Stress has been linked to the onset of 1st and 2nd manic episodes.
Has high rates co-morbid of substance abuse
Rehm's Self-Control model of depression
Integrate cognitive as well as behavioral models of depression.
-result of negative self-evaluations, lack of self-reinforcement and high rates of self-punishment.
Classical Test Theory
views individual test score as sum of true score variability and error score variability (X=T+E)
Empirical Criterion Keying
MMPI. items are chosen based on their ability to discriminate group membership.
only information on the tester, w/o info about how the individual compares to others
Item Response Theory
used to calculate to what extent a specific item on a test correlates with an underlying construct.
-looks at subject's performance on a test item as representing the degree to which the subject has a latent trait
Beta blockers side effect
Less common: depression, anxiety and thought disturbance
caused by a genetic defect.
-impairments in the metabolism of amino acids cause toxic chemicals to remain unmetabolized, resulting in severe mental retardation.
Long tem Potentiation (LTP)
People's tendency to agree that vague descriptions apply to them (e.g., newspaper horoscopes)
Rarely cry when mother leaves and then ignore her upon return
Making test more difficult
Raises predictor cutoff
# of FP and TP are decreased
# of TN and # of FNs are increased
Aversive conditioning conducted in imagination and is used exclusively for problematic behaviors like drinking or cigarette smoking
form of CBT that is confrontive and focuses on irrational beliefs
point out incongruence between self and experience
Evaluate the levels of differentiation in each family member
sign of fear and tx is guided imagery
SSRIs are commonly prescribed
DNA and RNA have been associated with
Memory and genetics
Sensory memory remains intact in amnesia
In pts with amnesia, which remains intact?
Immediate or Sensory Memory
Ability to remember the context in which material was learned
appearance of a stimulus during a critical period that determines the nature of the stimulus in a stimulus-response pairing
Which research design is least likely threatened by history?
applies to the standard error of the mean
James Marcia-Identity Model
Diffusion (ID Model)
No crisis and No commitment
Commitment but NO crisis
Crisis but NO commitment
Conformity is bet when
moderate group size (about 7) and unanimous members
Theme Interference Problems
Consultee-centered case consultation
Intervention that has the lowest recidivism of spousal abuse
Arrest and Imprisonment
An individual who is uncomfortable with his or her homosexual orientation
Sexual Disorder, NOS
Alternate approach to treating chronic pain
May be used and solicited as LONG as they are not solicited from current patients or those vulnerable to undue influence.
AA adheres to
Disease Model of Addiction
Marlatt's Model of Addiction
-Uses CBT for relapse prevention
Conducting an ABAB design, risk is
Failure of DV to return to baseline
Neo-Freudians emphasize in
Substance most likely to cause hallucinations upon WITHDRAWAL
-Alcohol, sedatives, hypnotics and anxiolytics
Opiod Withdrawal (Heroin)
Dysphoria, Fatigue, Unpleasant dreams, increased appetite and psychomotor agitation
A child with a reading disability
Will continue to have problems in adulthood.
How likely a person will maintain his or her position in the group if an equivalent test is given
Kohlberg's 3 Levels of Moral Development
1. Pre-conventional: Compliance with rules to avoid punishment and get rewards.
b. Instumental Hedonism
Kohlberg's 3 Levels of Moral Development
2. Conventional: Conforming to rules to get social approval.
a. Good Boy/Good Girl
b. Law and Order
Kohlberg's 3 Levels of Moral Development
a. Morality of Contract, Rights and Laws
b. Morality of Conscience
Which methods can help control HALO EFFECT?
1. Training the raters
2. Forced response format in which the rater is forced to choose between 2 eaually desirable or undesirable attributes
3. BARS: objective rating methods
-does NOT help control halo effects
-compares employees with one another.
Opiod Withdrawal (Heroin)
Flu like symptoms
Phenobarbital (Barbiturates) withdrawal causes
Most people will maintain their relative ranking or position in the group on retesting.
Idiosyncracy Credits refer to
a group's tolerance of an individual's disregard for group norms. They can be earned by initially conforming to the group norms.
Classic Aging Profile
Maintenance or enhanced crystallized (e.g., vocabulary, information) intelligence with diminished fluid (e.g., digit symbol, picture arrangement) intelligence
person must choose between 2 desirable alternative and subsequent to choosing, slightly devalues the alternative not chosen.
Choices between something that is positive but has negative consequence.
E.g., going to a party but gets grounded for going to the party
Chi-square CANNOT be run
When repeated observations are made
Prescribing the symptom
Strategic Family Therapy
Concern for Double Binds
Communications Family Therapy or MRI from Palo Alto
Serotonin and GABA
involved with mood disorders
associated with anxiety, epilepsy and schizophrenia
Used to describe single subject approaches
results from a foced -choice format. It can only describe relative strengths or interests within a subject and cannot be used for comparisons across subjects.
Ability to correctly reject the null.
If power is reduced, less likely to correctly reject the null.
Type II or Beta
incorrectly accepting the null hypothesis. Fails to reject an a false null
if a null hypothesis states a patient is healthy, and the patient is in fact sick, but the test fails to reject the hypothesis, falsely suggesting that the patient is healthy.
Saying there isn't a difference when there is.
Type I or Alpha
Null hypothesis is falsely rejected.
Saying there is a difference when there isn't.
For example, if a null hypothesis states a patient is healthy, and the patient is indeed healthy, but the test rejects this hypothesis, falsely
suggesting that the patient is sick.
False Positive. Test says pt is sick, but really healthy
The fetish object is:
Sexual excitement is the response
To distinguish between conditioned and unconditioned
Ask the question, Is the response universal? Does everybody has the same response?
HI LPC do best
in MODERATELY favorable situations
Low LPC do best
at the extremes (either highly favorable or unfavorable)
Standard Error of MEASUREMENT
-Average Amount of Error in calculating each subject's IQ score.
Standard Error of the ESTIMATE
-Average amount of error in Predicting each subject's high school GPA
Standard Error of the Mean
-Average amount of error in the GROUP's Mean in relation to POPULATION Mean
Average Amount of Spread in the group's IQ scores
Integrity vs. Despair (Late Adulthood)
Age 55 to death
Outcome = Wisdom
Generativity vs. Stagnation (Middle Adulthood)
Age: 35 to 55
Outcome: Capacity to care for others and to give to future generations
Intimacy vs Isolation (Early Adulthood)
Outcome: Affiliation and Love
Identity vs Role Confusion
Outcome: Devotion and Fidelity
Industry vs Inferiority
Initiative vs Guilt
Autonomy vs Shame
Age 18 months - 3 years
Outcome: Self-control, courage and will
Trust vs Mistrust
Age 0-18 months
Chronic Middle Ear Infection
Will have problems with verbal comprehension, including vocabulary, similarities and word reasoning
Acute Hearing Infection
Will have problems with working memory (i.e., digit span and arithmetic)
Certain things occur for development to proceed normally, if they don't occur, future events May Be Able to compensate
Certain things must occur for development to proceed. If they don't, person WILL NOT be able to compensate
-Physical development has critical periods
Stroop Color Interference
Assess Frontal Lobe deficits
Inherited disease marked by motor disturbances
When ethical guidelines conflict with the law...
psychologists make known his or her commitment to the Ethics Code and attempt to resolve the conflict responsibly.
9 year old is asked why one should not steal...
Because one can be punished for ste
9 year old is asked why one should not steal...
Because one can be punished for stealing!
Diagnosis of Dementia, Alzheimer's Type
made by neuropsychological testing and clinical history
Confabulation on the Rorschach
Cognitive impairment (e.g., MR) It's a claw, it's a lobster!
Freud / Erikson I
Latency / Industry vs. Inferiority (age 6 to 12)
Freud / Erikson II
Phallic / Initiative vs guilt (age 3-6)
Freud / Erikson III
Genital / Identity vs. Role confusion (age 12-18)
Norepinephrine and Serotonin
Less common S/E of beta blockers
Depression, anxiety and thought disturbances
Critics of Piaget
Piaget underestimated children's abilities at certain ages
Consultant working with employees in order to improve the implementation of a program
Consultee-Centered Administrative Consultation
How to develop a program for customer relations. Focus on the program itself
Program-Centered Administrative Consultation
Consultant works with the consultee on his or her difficulties with patients
Consultee-Centered Case Consultation
Focus on helping the consultee with a particular patient
Client-Centered Case Consultation
Structure responsible for sleep wake cycle
Hypothalamus, located in the temporal lobe
Common cause of MR
during embryonic stage of development
Attribution to depression, helplessnes and hopelessness
Internal, Stable and Global
Correlation of IQ scores among siblings
Rational-Economic Model (Classical decision theory)
Compiling all relevant information, investigating all possible solutions and choosing the very best one
-rarely implemented because it is time consuming
Behavioral Decision Theory
Recognition of Real-life Limits, adopts a satisficing style, implements the first proposal that is adequate
Frame of Reference
used to improve the accuracy of performance ratings.
extraneous variable is unanticipated. co-varying out an extraneous variable.
a variable that correclates with the outcome measure
focuses on availability, adequacy and appropriateness of services
Necessity of procedures and cost
In psychoanalytic theory, mania masks
Eruption of id impulses into the ego
results in Anxiety and an attempt to bolstering defense mechanisms
located in the left frontal lobe, which controls the muscles that produce speech.
-includes difficulties iwth speech production and fluency
Test-retest reliability would be the most appropriate type of reliability for
a test measuring an enduring trait
What type of evaluation if consultant is evaluating the program on an on-going basis as it is being implemented?
What type of evaluation if consultant evaluate at the end of the program?
What type of consultation if consultant focuses on helping a consultee on some genral clinical issues?
Consultee-centered CASE consultation
What type of consultation if consultant focuses on helping consultees overcome problems that limit programmatic change?
Consultee-centered ADMINISTRATIVE consultation
What risk factor results in reduced number of brain cells or neurons?
What factor helps neuronal growth, develop more axons and dendrites and increases connections?
Brain development after birth in response to stimulation and experience
Information will be most likely transferred to long-term memory when it is
What extends the capcaity of short-term memory?
How long does HIPAA requires that all documentation be kept?
Concurrent vs. Predictive Validity
Concurrent and Predictive difference is that in concurrent tests are taken at the same time.
Predictive: test is taken and then a few months later correlation is checked with another measure
2 scales that do not correlate
Discriminant (Divergent) validity
Correct for attenuation of error
Emotions and physiological experience are simultaneous
"we see a bear, then we run"
"you lose a fortune, you cry"
-emotions is followed by an action
Schacter and Singer (2 factor theory of emotion)
People search for environmental cues to interpret their unexplained emotions
Exposing individuals to arguments against their views, then refuting (disproving) the argument
may serve to inoculate them against persuasive views
refers to the person's belief that effort will result in successful task performance (similar to self-efficacy)
belief that success on the task will result in rewards
Value that the reward has for the person, or how desirable the reward is.
input vs output compared to other employees
good predictors of job choice but NOT job performance
Performance is a function of
opportunity (environmental varibales and organizational support), capacity/ability (individual attributes) and willingness/motivation (work effort)
lower level needs. dissatisfaction
Rational Economic Model of decision making
All facts and all possible alternative solutions be analyzed before choosing the optimal solution
-oppostive to administrative approach
-more complete knowledge base
supervisor's expertise because they the education and training
Rule-regulated, orderly and unambiguous
like the opportunity to influence others and obtain power.
Positive feedback loop
Negative feedback loop
deviation dampening. decreases the likelihood of changes and helps maintain the homeostatic state
taking things as a whole
-result is person is gullible and compliant
results in paranoia
results in self-desctructive behavior
Fundamental rule of psychoanalysis
Aversive stimulus cannot be avoided.
Punishment is inevitable
highest when similar in content, but different in temperament.
-reliability is highest when test items are homogenous and test takers are heterogeneous
-subtype of internal consistency. by taking the mean of all possible split halves
Increases external validity
increases internal validity
Assumption to both parametric and nonparametric statistics
Fundamental Attribution Error
tendency to overemphasize DISPOSITIONAL factors when making attirbutions about the behavior of other people
You attribute your success to your OWN ability (internal factors) but you attribute your failure to the shortcomings of others (external factors)
You and another fail.
-You attribute your failure to external or situational factors while you attribute the other person's failure to internal or dispositional factors
When a listener feels pressured,
-resistance to persuasion increased
Coaction (presence of others working alongside an individual) and audience (presence of a passive observer).
-enhances performance of simple, well-learned behaviors but impairing performance on complex, newly-learned behaviors
Make each contribution public
In order to help a group resist persuasion,
Mild argument for the opposition and then refute those arguments
Meaning is based on what is explicitly verbalized (actual words)
the situation or context and non-verbal cues significantly affect the meaning of what is communicated
Internal responsibility, External control
It's my fault and there's nothing I can do about it
occurs when there is both a loss of cultural id as well as little interest in the dominant culture
Assimilation (Berry's acculturation model)
When people don't maintain their cultural id and adopt the attitudes and views of the dominant culture
When people value their original culture and avoid itneractions with the dominant culture
When people both value their own cultures as well as seek interactions with the dominant culture
MMPI- K scale
Measures guardedness or defensiveness.
Moderator variable, by adding points to the clinical scales
naive attempt to present favorably
attempts to fake bad, random responding, overall distresss and pathology, measures infrequently endorsed items.
VRIN and TRIN
EACH employee the same on all dimensions of job performance
Frame of Reference
decrease rater bias
-ability of raters to assign accurate performance ratings
Critical Incident Technique
incidents are identified by the supervisor who observes an employee while s/he works
Most predictive of job performance across different jobs and job settings
From OCEAN personality type:
Best predictor of job performance
General mental ability tests
What is useful when errors that occur during on-the-job training would be too costly?
According to Holland, the optimal situation is for the job environment to match the individual's,
In Expectancy Theory, Instrumentality refers to:
the relationship between performance and outcome
Selection of a leadership style, according to Hersey and Blanchard's, should be based on:
Subordinate's Job Maturity
Job satisfaction has the strongest inverse correlation with
A transformational leader is most liekely to use:
Framing--describing an organizations' goals and activities in ways that make them more meaningful to employees
Vroom, Yetton and Jago
Social loafing occurs
when group is large and task is additive
IQ rate for identical twins reared together
Learning CAN occur without reinforcement
Biological sibling reared together
Pro and Retro in memory interference
Refers to which material is being interfered with
If new material (pro) and old material (retro)
Biological parent/child reared together
Cross sectional + Longitudinal
Age related decline in IQ is most likely to be found in what design?
cross-sectional because it is susceptible to cohort (intergenerational) effects
According to Schaie, which IQ domain showed significan decline prior to age 60?
Optimal item difficulty level for a T/F test
D = 1.0 in item discrimination index
upper group answers correctly and none in the lower group
Slope (steepness) of the item response curve indicates the item's:
The steeper the slope
the greater the discrimination
What reliability statistic to use to estimate the effects of lengthening a test item
what statistic to use when test items are scored dichotomously (right or wrong)
Coefficient of stability
Mono-trait and heteromethod (same trait/ different method) coefficients are large,
Heterotrait-monomethod (different traits / same method) coefficients are small
Divergent / discriminant validity
Which defines the relationship between a predictor's relaibility coefficient and its criterion-related validity coefficient?
validity coefficient cannot exceed the square root of its reliability coefficient.
Percentile ranks and standard scores share in common
Both reference an examinee's score to those achieved by examinees in the standardization sample
Scores on extraneous variable
correlated with scores on the DV
Clusters (groups) of subjects rather than individual subjects are
selected from the population
Cluster sampling involves
randomly selecting pre-existing groups of individual from the population
Supervisors and employers may be legally responsible for the actions of their supervisees and employees.
Protects a client's confidentiality in the context of legal proceedings
When consulting with colleagues, psychologists do not disclose confidential information that reasonably could lead to the id of client with whom they have a confidential information
unless they have obtained prior consent of the person
It is not necessary,
to get client's permission when his/her identity will not be revealed
motivation of priorities that define how people see themselves and hteir work.
Norepinephrine and Dopamine
Preschool children who believe thatrules are absolute and unchangeable
Consequences of an act. Good behavior is rewarded and bad beahvior is punished
Desire to maintain existing social laws, rules and norms
Refers to disorders of a functional system. It is typically used for problems in movement such as incoordination, often accompanied by slurred speech.
Inability or deficit in using or understanding language.
Dependent on learning and education
Negative attitudes based on sexual orientation,
refers to heterosexuals' dread of being in close quarters with homosexuals and homosexuals' self-loathing.
parents have the right not only to inspect and review their children's school records but also to challenge the contents of records.
It indicates the proportion of variability shared by the two variables, or the proportion of variability in one variable that can be accounted for by variability in the other.
Coefficient of determination
Stimulate divergent thinking
Howard's phase model
In depressed pts, one draws a specific conclusion without supporting evidence, or even in the face of contradictory evidence.
Client therapy matching predicts
changing or adapting to the environment by altering one’s own behaviors or responses
perspective involves focusing on extrinsic distinctions that have meaning for the observer of the culture or society
perspective involves focusing on the intrinsic distinctions that are meaningful to members of a particular culture or society.
refers to changing or adapting to the environment by effecting changes in the environment.
Self-esteem is enhanced by believing one’s own group (the
ingroup) is attractive and belittling the members of the other groups (the outgroups)
when clear internal cues are absent, individuals infer feelings and beliefs by observed behavior or external cues
individuals need and seek confirmation of their self-concept, whether the confirmation is positive or negative
Anterograde amnesia and proactive inhibition
both problems remembering after the trauma
retroactive interference vs. retrograde amnesia
problems with remembering before the trauma
associated features of Somatoform D/o
anxiety and depression
Tiedeman and O'Hara based their career development model on
ego identity model
natural and similarities in grammar are present in many different languages is associated with
Larry P vs. Riles case
-use of standardized intelligence tests for assessing children for placement in special classes for the mentally retarded.
-banned the use of IQ tests in the placement of minority children in special education classes.
one dichotomous variable and one continuous
social constructivism. social and cultural factors.
influenced reciprocal teaching
Of the big 5 personality, which is the strongest predictor of job satisfaction
Neuroticism. low neuroticism and high extraversion
Of the big 5 personality, which is the strongest predictor of job performance
Most affected factor in WAIS-III among TBI patients
aware of the problem and thinking of change
inability to recognize familiar objects by sight
standard error of estimate
how well the equation fits the data. how far we can expect to make predictions
According to Beck's cognitive-behavioral model, automatic thoughts are
interpretations of a situation that determine one's behavioral and emotional responses
hyperthermia, altered consciousness, tachycardia, muscle rigidity, and autonomic dysfunction
symptoms of NMS from antipsychotic
In Dissociative Amnesia,
memory loss is usually for information acquired after the emotional trauma that brings on the symptoms
Tendency of individuals who start off with similar views to end up with a more extreme position after group discussion
Absence (petit mal) seizures are located in the
Partial seizures are located in the
Damage to the prefrontal cortex affects
memory and attention
Employee has low ability but high willingness
Leadership style = selling
High ability but low willingness employee
High in task and accepting responsibility
Low in accepting responsibility and ability to do the task
Potential negative side effects of SSRI
Worsen sleep and anxiety symptoms
Biographical information form
predicts job turnover
Alarm: after a person becomes aware of the stressful situation
Resistance: summon their resources and meet the challenge
Exhaustion: after trauma is over
Highest rate of suicide occurs among
Views patient's symptoms as pathological (brief therapy or crisis intervention)
Betablockers effect on the receptor site
blocking access to the neurotransmitter site
Population variances are equal
When there is a brief delay, recall is best for words
in the beginning of the list
Beta or Type II error
retaining a false null. failing to detect a true effect
Low heterotrait and low heteromethod
High in divergent validity
associated with productivity, satisfaction, absenteeism
Less impact on absenteeism
Violence against lesbians and gays
NV measure of intelligence for deaf people
Hiskey and Nebraska
Leading cause of death in the US across all age groups
Heart disease followed with cancer
According to Piaget, cognitive adaptation to the work environment is achieved through
accommodation and assimilation
Hallucinations after continued use
Recurrence of hallucinations long after intoxication is the result of
Children with ADHD are most likely to score lowest on the WISC-III
Digit Span and Arithmetic
Most important therapeutic group factors according to Yalom are
Interpersonal learning, catharsis and cohesiveness
Reduced speech, depression and apathy are results of which damage
Left frontal lobe
Grouping students by ability
High in control but high in warmth
Hi control but lo warmth
Lo in control and low in warmth
Neglecting, rejecting, uninvolved
-kids have worse coping skills
-The children tend to be antisocial, lack self-regulation, are more immature, and score lower on cognitive tests.
children have difficulty controlling their impulses and, although they are intelligent, they are not motivated to achieve.
Permissive or Laissez-faire
OCPD involves ---- contrary to OCD
orderliness, perfectionism and control
Psychomotor stimulants activate dopamine receptors and
anti-psychotic medications causes motor disturbance
Prader-Willi is caused by
Xtra chromosome results in disorders like
Downs Syndrome and Klinefelter
Missing chromosome and occurs in females (missing another X)
On MMPI, hi scale 1 (hypochondriasis) and 3 (hysteria), low scale 2 (depression)
F scale score is significantly lower than scores on the L and K scales and indicates an attempt to present in a favorable light
scale 7 score is significantly lower than scores on scales 6 and 8
Paranoid valley or psychotic V
On MMPI, scale 5 score is significantly lower than scores on scales 4 and 6.
MMPI scales- II
Frequently used projective test
Elaborative learning or rehearsal
Helps material transferred from short term to long term memory
According to Beck, a depressed person is most likely to maintain
external locus of control and internal responsibility
"zero temptation and 100% self-efficacy"
result of complete behavioral change in the termination stage
Ability to maintain a mental picture after a toy is removed
Eidetic or photographic memory
Seroconversion, as it relates to HIV
process of becoming antibody positive.
the conversion from seronegative (HIV negative) to seropositive (HIV positive)
Which lobe controls motor movements?
cerebellum, basal gangila, supplementary motor area and parietal lobe
Frequently used scale to measure orientation
Galveston Orientation and Amnesia Test
SCAD profile on the WAIS-III
Symbol Search, Digit Symbol Coding, Arithmetic and Digit Span
Low Working Memory and Low Processing Speed
react in a way that is opposite of what is requested or desired
Smoking cessation outcome
Related to level of dependence
Best tx for GAD
Internal locus of control and internal locus of responsibility
Working memory of the WAIS-III
Digit span, arithmetic and L-N sequencing
Exposure to a previously CS in the absence of a real aversive stimulus
To determine how well an examinee did on a test in terms of a specific standard of performance (norm vs. criterion)?
Monoamine neurotransmitter subdivided in 2 categories
Cathecolamines are -synthesized from the amino acid tyrosine
Indolamine are synthesized from tryptophan
Robber's Cave experiment: children in a summercamp divided into two groups on an arbitrary basis and made to engage in a competition with each other. Hostility and dislike decreased when task was to cooperate.
indicated superordinate goals reduce hostility between groups
Naltrexone - decrease alcohol cravings
Side effects are
nausea, headache, insomnia and anxiety
Pt with Alzheimer's disease has lowest scores on --- of WAIS-III
Strong Interest Inventory (like all Interest Inventory) predicts
Tx of Bulimia, what med effect would be most effective
increase serotonin level
Forebrain structure that is important for motivated and emotional behavior
Serial position effect
w/o delay, beginning and end will be recalled the best
with delay, beginning only in long term; end of list is still in short tem
Meds for Parkinson does what
increase dopamine and blocks Ach receptors
memory is mistaken for imagination
Tip of the tongue
person is able to recall parts of an item or related information, but is frustratingly unable to recall the whole item
multiple similar memories are being recalled and interfere with each other.
person misremembers seeing an event personally when it was actually seen on tv
Tx for chronic pain
relaxation and coping skills
Reasoning involving by the tendency to move from one specific case to another without taking the general into account
Transduction (occurs in preoperation)
Inability to focus on more than one aspect of a situation or object at a time
Refers to the inability to transfer one type of conservation to another
Significant finding for a one-way ANOVA
indicates that population means are different
Primary circular reaction
E.g., thumb sucking
sleep difficulties, appetite change, psychmotor retardation, reduced energy level, changes in sexual desire/function
1st degree relatives of schizophrenics are most likely to be diagnosed with
Feigning memory disorder
Loss of personal ID but memory for other events is intact
Greatest increase in suicide rate is among
In cases of litigation, the key defense for a psychologist is
sufficient record keeping
Murray Bowen's approach to family therapy is strongly influenced by
IPT believes that depression is caused by
disturbances in early life related to attachment
compares a student with the age or grade-level expectancies of a norm group
One way of joining the family
In factor analysis, explained variance of one of the factors
Mini-Mental Status Exam is useful for
screening for Dementia in older adults
Predictors of adolescent suicide
depression, use of drugs/alcohol and antisocial behavior
Recall or recognition tests
active or conscious role in processing information
sense of remembering specific prior experience
Extension of the limbs
violent rhythmic contractions
Purpose of reframing
to increase family's compliance with the therapist directives and the treatment plan in general
Highest suicide rates in men
Older men. Ages 75-79
uses WDEP technique
-based on 5 survival; to love and belong ; power
; freedom ; and fun
there is more than one month but less than 12 months of remission
12 months or longer of remission
Adult Attachment Interview
Functional Nocturnal Enuresis
not associated with any particular stage of sleep
Predictors of child psychopathology
Low SES, severe marital discord, large family size, parental criminality and placement outside of home
Left frontal lobe
posterior part of temporal lobe
Damage to arcuate fasciculus (nerve fibers that connect Broca's and Wernicke's) result in
APA record keeping guideline
7 years post-termination or 3 years after minor reaches age of maturity
Leading cause of infant mortality
Views rules as unchangeable are absolute; punishment should fit the consequence
Heteronomous (ages 4-7)
Rules are determined and alterable. Intent of the actor should fit the punishment
Discriminant Analysis is used for
Structural Equation Model
used to find cause-effect
Inverted U theory
anxiety and performance. Performance is improved when there's moderate anxiety
Tx for Dysthymia vs. MDD
IPT and CBT are effective but not quite effective than it is for MDD
someone with high self-esteem will views his/her achievement
as internal and specific
what brain structure mediates eating and sex, acting as a satisfaction center?
what characteristic will someone who successfully goes through identity and identity confusion phase
adolescent compensates for a lack of identity by
fusing with a group that eagerly provides its members with details of an identity: religious cults, military organizations, or hate groups.
occurs when the person becomes overzealous in
identification to a particular role to the point that he or she is
intolerant of others.
DSM-IV TR approach uses what approach
Polythetic approach: a person may have some but not all of the possible diagnostic criteria.
SSNRI : Venlaflexin (Effexor) and duloxetine (Cymbalta)
tx of GAD, MDD and PD.
less chances for overdose and more rapid onset than tricyclics
proliferation, migration, differentation and myelination
Predictor of job turnover
Sibling relationship during pre-adolescence
Closeness and Conflict
What part of the Ethical Code“set forth enforceable rules.”?
What part discusses the intent, organization, procedural considerations, and scope of application of the Ethics Code?
What part provide “aspirational goals to guide psychologists toward the highest ideals of psychology?
Preamble and General Principles
Emotions and Motivation
Damage to the temporal lobe will produce deficts in
Tx for Factitious D/O
Support psychotherapy outpatient
What tx for parasuicidal behaviors (e.g., cutting) found in Borderline Per D/O
Dialectical Behavior Therapy
Transition state betweene being awake and falling asleep
More effective when the task is easy (decentralized vs. centralized)
ALL communication passes through one position or person, have been shown to be more efficient when tasks are mundane and simple.
Involves the learning of new behaviors or the
altering of existing behaviors by imagining scenes of others interacting with the environment.
An individual imagines he/she is engaging in the undesirable behavior and then imagines an aversive consequence for doing so.
Highest co-morbidity with GAD is
Partial Reinforcement Effect
organisms respond for a longer period of time during extinction trials when they were previously reinforced on an intermittent schedule than when they were reinforced on a continuous schedule.
Most effective tx for anti-social juvenile offenders
Awareness, knowledge and skill
HMO will likely approve if
patient has recently shown a decline
American Disabilities Acts
Protects individuals participating in a drug rehab program who are no longer using drugs
To best reduce likelihood of changing someone's persuasive message
Expose to a weak argument against current position
Working memory NOT motor functions
Women diagnosed with Borderline Personality
Similar to men with Anti-social PD
Amount of variability accounted for
increases validity coefficient
a lack of insight into one’s own behavior,
denial, an attempt to create a favorable impression, or the tendency to answer items “false.”
High L scale
Which is predictive of retirement satisfaction?
Participation in activities
Which group is not considered a race?
Federal law regarding HMO requirement for mental health service
short term (not to exceed 20 visits) crisis intervention and medical treatment and referral for alcohol and drug addiction
Psychoanalytic therapist will attribute anxiety to
failure of ego defense mechanism
What school of psychology: is structured and goal-oriented.
relapse prevention is a focus throughout and it is based on an collaborative model?
Beck Depression II inventory
0 to 13 = minimal depression.
14-19 = mild depression,
20-28 = moderate
29 or higher reflect severe depression.
Differences in size and body type between males and females
Which is the MOST stable trait (OCEAN)?
Which is the LEAST stable trait?
5 levels of Maslow's hieracrchy
Physiological, Safety, Social, Esteem and Self-Actualization
Opiate antagonist that is used to treat alcohol
abuse disorders by reducing the desire for alcohol after drinking has stopped and is also often used in maintenance treatment of opiate addiction.
Bupropion, Varenicline and Nicotine replacement interventions
Tx for nicotine dependence and smoking cessation
Proposes convergent and divergent thinking as dimensions of intelligence
Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence
Heterogeniety of group members
Positively correlated with creativity and decision making
Brain structure for kids with ADHD
frontal lobe, striatum and cerebellum
For a diagnosis of Tourette's disorder
must have multiple motor tics and at least one vocal tic
Areas of the brain that is related to declarative memory are
diencephalon, peripheral cortex and hippocampus
Fielder situational control:
leader-employee relations, task structure, position or legitimate power
Panic Disorder with Agoraphobia highly associated with
Differences between the groups in experience
rather than age that could be accounting for differences between them on the dependent variable.
Cohort effect. Usually in cross-sectional design
Atrophy of the caudate nucleus
A term to describe when a therapist’s ability to
recognize or consider other symptoms or conditions is “overshadowed” by one aspect of a client’s symptoms or condition
States that certain small areas of the brain can take on the function of larger, related areas that have been destroyed
Principles of Equipotential
States that in many types of learning the cerebral cortex acts as a whole
Principle of mass action
States that feedback either reward or punishment will automatically strengthen or weaken responses
Law of Effect
States that the strength of response to a stimulus is not dependent on the strength of the stimulus
All or none principle
Keeps internal conflict or need out of conscious awareness
Symptoms helps the individual avoid an unpleasant activity or obtain support from the environmnet
Pseudocyesis: believes she is pregnant and has physical signs of pregnancy but is not pregnant OR a person who has had one or two unexplained physical symptoms for less than 6 months
Somatoform Disorder NOS
Sensation of tingling, pricking, or numbness of
an individual’s skin, more generally known as the feeling of “pins and needles” or a limb “falling asleep”
Paired comparison as opposed to merit comparisons
More precise but difficult because it is time consuming
Relations between the genders are characterized by the coexistence of power differences and intimate interdependence
Ambivalent Sexism Theory
Repeatedly presenting the CS without the US
Yerkes and Dodson
inverted U relationship between arousal and performance
Which of the WAIS subtest is most stable across lifespan
Primary function of school psychologist
Assess, consult and make recommendations
Damage to the right hemisphere
can produce apathy or undue cheerfulness.
Pt will respond indifferently and exaggerated jocularity if rt hemisphere is damage.
Standard Error is NOT
a measure of variability
Rationalist, cognitive therapy includes
cognitive restructuring, thought stopping, and reducing automatic thoughts
Anxiety and depression share which of the following symptoms?
A predictor that is highly sensitive for identifying the presence of a disorder would most likely result in
Higher false positive
The combination of social avoidance, fear of humiliation, and loneliness are characteristic of
Tension-reduction hypothesis proposes that alcohol abuse is due to
The idea that one is unique and not subject to the natural laws that govern others
Misinformation effect (hindsight bias)
The effects on children of observing aggressive models, such as through television violence, are
both short and long term
What are the two dimensions of leadership?
Consideration and initiating structure
An effective treatment for panic attacks
Cognitive distortions, such as overgeneralization, personalization, magnification, arbitrary inference, and selective abstraction are reflected statements
of Beck's Cognitive Theory
What is needed for a successful malpractice lawsuit against a psychologist?
Decreases in the presence of others if the desired behavior is not well-learned.
If you don't know something too well, having someone watch you can increase your anxiety
Congruence between self and experience
Involves episodes of abrupt awakening, usually with a panicky scream; however, a dream is not recalled.
Sleep terror disorder
To determine the degree of association between two variables that are reported in terms of ranks
The best predictor(s) for alcoholism
Family hx of alcoholism
Which of the following describes the parents who are most likely to raise very aggressive children?
Parents who use frequent and intermittent violence and have a laissez-faire attitude toward their children's behavior
The experience of REM-rebound occurs most often when
sedatives are discontinued
Which is related to exposure to sexual abuse, sexual harassment or sexual trauma?
Vaginismus involves involuntary contractions of the muscles in the outer third of the vagina when vaginal penetration is attempted) doesn’t have a clear
Behavioral treatment for obsessions would most likely involve
Deliberate exposure and thought stopping
Folie a deux
Two people who share a delusion of similar content
The risk for a monozygotic (identical) twin of a schizophrenic proband to be diagnosed with Schizophrenia is
The risk for a dizygotic (identical) twin of a schizophrenic proband to be diagnosed with Schizophrenia is
Provides information about a student in the
context of the existing curriculum. The results of such an assessment not only indicate the student's performance level -- they also provide feedback about the instruction itself, so that necessary changes can be made to better fit the student's ability and current knowledge.
Has unlimited capacity, duration is 2 seconds and it is an external representation of the stimuli.
Alzheimer's usually characterized in 3 stages
Stage 1: which lasts 2-4 years, short-term memory loss
begins. Patients in this stage frequently complain about forgetting where they placed things.
Stage 2: which lasts 2-10 years, there is further memory
impairment (mostly explicit rather than implicit) and they begin having difficulty performing complex tasks, such as balancing a checkbook or going grocery shopping. They may get lost in familiar places and become
Stage 3:theymay lose the ability to speak and become unable to recognize family, friends, or even themselves. They lose all capacity to care for themselves and have difficulty walking, are incontinent, and are ultimately bedridden and often die of an opportunistic respiratory
Lack of initiation, motivation or goal-directed activities and is considered a "negative" symptom of Schizophrenia or Schizophreniform disorder
refers to the inability to experience pleasure.
Anti-depressant medication (ADM) vs Cognitive Therapy
ADMs are more effective among severely depressed pts.
No difference between Cog Therapy and ADMS among mild to moderate depression
Percentile ranks tend to ________ raw score differences in the middle of the score distribution and _______ raw score differences at the end of the distribution.
percentile ranks tend to overestimate raw score
differences in the middle of the score distribution and underestimate raw score differences at the end of the distribution.
each succeeding child has less of the family's resources available to him or her.
-Only child will score the highest
Prevalence rates for Panic Disorder
1 to 2% in community samples
Freedom from Distractibility
Arithmetic and Digit Span
We likely change our attitudes to change our behavior
Based on Elkind,
adolescent assumes that one is unique
Flashbulb memories are part of
Smallest unit of language
Smallest unit of language that carries meaning
A whole word, which, when combined with gestures and intonation can express an entire thought.
Refers to knowledge we have about our own rather than about the nature of human knowledge in general.
Not all predictors are administered. If fail in one predictor, others are not administered