Psychopharm

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lcaruz
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Psychopharm
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2012-08-27 00:41:03
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Anti-psychotic Drugs
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  1. Typical Antipsychotic Drugs
    • Chlorpromazine (thorazine)
    • Haldol (Haloperidol)
    • Stelazine (trifluoperazine)
    • Prolixin (Fluphenazine)
    • Mellaril (thioridazine)
    • Navane (Thiothixene)
  2. Atypical Antipsychotic Drugs
    • Clozaril (Clozapine)
    • Risperdal (Risperidone)
    • Zyprexa (Olanzapine)
    • Seroquel (Quetiapine)
  3. Potency
    High potency antipsychotics are less sedating and have fewer initial side effects.

    Therefore, these are tried first (e.g., Haldol, Prolixine, Navane) - Typical Antipsychotics
  4. Side Effects of Lower Potency
    Sedation, Antichlonergic effects (drying) , Orthostatic Hypotension and lowering of the seizure threshold
  5. High Potency Side Effects
    EPS. All typical or traditional antipsychotics can potentially cause TD
  6. Anti-cholinergic Effects
    • Drying out or Holding In.
    • S-E typically diminish but do not completely disappear within the first month of antipyschotic use
  7. Orthostatic Hypotension
    Dizziness and Lightheadedness on standing up
  8. EPS (Extrapyramidal Symptom) 1
    -Movement Related Symptoms
    Some are treated through the use of Anticholinergic Agents (ACAs. e.g., Cogentin)
  9. EPS 2
    • Dystonia: acute and painful muscle spasms of the neck, back, tongue, eyes or larynx
    • -usually pass within 2 weeks

    • Parkinsonism: sxs persist throughout tx and afflict 12-45%.
    • Treated by lowering dose, switan ching drugs, or using an ACA

    • Akathisia: common cause to stop taking meds.tx. can be helped by using propranolol (beta blocker), benzos or ACA
    • causes feelings of dysphoria as werr las jitters or fidgeting.
    • -persist throughout
  10. Neuro Malignant Syndrome
    • Lethal.
    • Muscle rigidity, altered consciousness, autonomic instability and high fever.
    • -requires emergency, stopping ALL neuroleptics, using IV and administering anti-fever meds
  11. Tardive Dyskinesia (TD)
    • abnormal movements of the lips, tongue, etc.
    • -arises after at least 6 mos of tx and typically plateaus after 3-6 years without worsening any further.
    • -someitmes, sxs emerge after drugs has been terminated or dose is lowered.
    • -TD is not believed to be progressive and may be reversible.
  12. Lethal with Clozaril-sudden drop in white blood cells usually within hrs or 12 wks of initial administration and manifesting sore throat and fever
    Agranulocytosis
  13. Elavil (amitrytyline)Anafranil (clomipramine)Tofranil (imipramine)
    Tricyclics (TCA)
  14. Prozac (fluoxetine)Zoloft (sertraline)Paxil (paroxetine)
    SSRI
  15. MAOIs
    • Nardil (phenelzine)
    • Parnate (tranylcpromine)
  16. Depression with Sleep Problems
    Desyrel (trazadone) or Sinequan (doxepin-TCA), both have hypnotic effects
  17. Panic Disorder /Anti-Depressants
    • In addition to Xanax (alprzolam) and Klonopin (clonazepam), PD is treated with antidepressants including: Tofranil (imipramine-TCA) and
    • Paxil (paroxetine) or Prozac (fluoxetine)-SSRI
  18. OCD/Anti-Depressant
    responds to TCA - Anafranil (clomipramine) and SSRI, Prozac (fluoxetine)
  19. Chronic Pain Disorder
    responds to TCA, Elavil (amitryptiline), Norpramin (desipramine) and Sinequan (doxepin)
  20. Bulimia and Premature Ejaculation
    TCAs and SSRIs
  21. TCA-Side Effects
    • Can trigger manic episodes in bipolar patients.
    • Cause more anticholinergic effects than do even the antipsychotics
    • Sedationn, orthostatic hypotension, weight gain, nausea and sexual dysfunction
  22. MAOI side effects
    • tyramine-induced hepertensive crisis, orthostatic hypotension, weight gain, edema, sexual dysfunction and insomnia.
    • -strict dietary compliance
  23. Anxiolytics
    • Xanax (alprazolam)
    • Klonopin (clonazepam)
    • Valium (diazepam)
    • Ativan (lorazepam)
  24. Anxiolytics
    Anxiety Reduction
  25. Sedative/hypnotics
    Induce sedation and improve sleep
  26. Stress Inoculation Training (SIT)
    • 3 phase tx approach:
    • 1. education about stress
    • 2. teaching coping strategies using relaxation trng and role playing
    • 3. in-vivo stress inducing
  27. Self-Instruction Therapy
    combines modeling and graduated practice with elements of RET, to help patients that have problems with task completion.
  28. Interpersonal Psychotherapy
    Treatment of Depression
  29. PTSD and Alcohol Dependence dx
    Treat Alcohol Dependence first!

    Cognitive Processing Therapy is effective for rape (PTSD)
  30. Motivational Interviewing
    for Substance Abuse and Substance Dependence Tx
  31. Contingency Contracting
    Disruptive Behavior Disorder (ADHD, ODD)
  32. Panic Disorder Tx
    CBT and Relaxation Training
  33. Buspar (Buspirone)
    • Non-BZs anxiolytic. Does not cause sedation, cognitive impairment, or withdrawal. Low potential for abuse and dependence.
    • -requires 2-4 wks to take in effects and cannot be taken "as needed".
    • -effective for GAD
  34. Beta blockers (Inderal-Propanolol)
    For somatic manifestation of anxiety, especially for social and performance anxiety.
  35. Rebound Insomnia
    • Discontinuing the use of BZ causes insomnia.
    • BZs disrupt the normal sleep cycle and suppress REM sleep.
    • REM rebound can cause vivid disturbing dreams.
  36. Most addictive BZs are those
    • rapid onset (providing a buzz)
    • short half-life (can cause mini-withdrawal)
    • taking the drug as needed encourages dependency
  37. Alcohol Withdrawal/BZ Withdrawal
    • Stage 1: tremors, sweating, agitation and increased autonomic reations.
    • Stage 2: hallucinations and panic
    • Stage 3: single or multiple grand mal seizures
  38. Anti-convulsants Meds
    • Tegretol (Carbamazepine)
    • Neurontin (Gabapentin)
    • Depakote (Divalproex)
    • Depakene (Valproic Acid)
  39. Anti-convulsants
    • Typically used when bipolar disorder does not respond to lithium or lithium is contraindicated. OR
    • to treat impulse control d/o
    • Tegretol = more effective than lithium in cases of rapid cycling or dysphoric manic episodes
    • Tegretol = neurological chronic pain disorders
  40. Stimulants
    Increase the level and effect of Catecholamines!
  41. Stimulant Meds
    • Dexedrine (dextroamphetamine)
    • Ritalin (Methylphenidate)
    • Cylert (Pemoline)
    • Adderall (Amphetamine)
  42. Stimulants/Disorders
    ADHD, Tx resistant depression, Tx resistant obesity, narcolepsy and AIDS, cancer
  43. Stimulants Side-Effects
    • Can cause dependence and drug abuse
    • Withdrawal Sxs:
    • increased appetite, weight gain, increased sleep, decreased energy, paranoid sxs.
  44. Peripheral Nervous System
    • Somatic : controld motor movement
    • Autonomic: involuntary
    • Sympathetic Nervous System
    • Parasympathetic
  45. Response Polarization
    People in groupsto becomemore extreme in their views
  46. Risky Shift
    People in groups to make riskier decisions than they would if they were deciding alone
  47. Grouphtink
    Group members are seeking concurrenc,consensus and unaninmity. Involves suspending critical evaluative capacities in decision making.
  48. Prozac (fluoxetine) SSRI
    LEAST likely to affect concentration, attention and memory
  49. Elavil (amitryptyline) TCA
    Chlorpromazine(thorazine) antipsychotic
    High levels of anticholinergic side effects: drymouth, blurry vision, confusion and decreased memory
  50. Xanax(BZ)
    Causes drowsiness, mild cognitive deficit and amnesia
  51. Job Evaluation
    Determines finanacial worth of a job to an organization
  52. Job Analysis
    • Analyzes the tasks and operations performed on a job as well as the training and education needed for the job
    • -Can devise and validate measures of job performance
  53. Pre-encounter
    prefers majority group
  54. Encounter (dissonance)
    Conflict between old self-deprecating attitudes and newly emerging appreciating attitudes
  55. Aversive Counterconditioning
    Focus is on weakening the CR
  56. Schein Career Anchors
    Self-concept as an anchor or stabilizing force determining what future occupational decisions will be made
  57. Donald Super's Theory
    Career Rainbow-developmental
  58. Holland's Theory
    Personality-Job Fit (RIASEC)
  59. Rosenthal Effect
    Experimenter Expectancy or self-fulfilling prophecy
  60. Hawthorne Effect
    Improve performance when they are being watched
  61. Overjustification Hypothesis
    • If children who enjoy reading receive rewards for reading, their interest in reading will actually decrease.
    • External rewards or incentives are offered for activities that had previously been intrinsically motivated, there is subsequently a decrease in interest in the rewarded activity
  62. Equity Theory
    Ratio of input and output
  63. Gain-Loss
    People we like most are those who initially don't like us and then change their perspective to come to like us.
  64. Moderator
    Strength of the relationship
  65. Mediator Variable
    Explains the relationship (why there's a relationship)
  66. Sleep Wake Cycle (Brain Structure)
    Hypothalamus in the Temporal Lobe
  67. Immersion-Emersion
    Strong identity with the minority group and rejection of the dominant culture (Racial Pride)
  68. Solomon Four Groups
    • Controls for the effects of testing (Practice Test)
    • Subjects are divided into 4 groups:
    • 1) pre-intervention-post
    • 2)pre-no intervention-post
    • 3) intervention-post
    • 4) post
  69. Latin Square
    Counterbalancing design and controls for carryover effects during repeated measure
  70. Bipolar Disorder I
    Has to have 1 or more MANIC or MIXED episode!
  71. Job Enrichment
    • Increasing worker's responsibilities
    • High in growth-need
    • Increase satisfaction and performance, as well as Decreased turnover and absenteeism
  72. Selection Rate
    # of openings: # of applicants
  73. Incremental Validity
    • Optimized if base rate is .5 and selection ratio is .1
    • If there is a large pool of applicants with relatively few openings.
  74. Type I
    • Saying there's a difference when there isn't!
    • False Positive
  75. Increasing True Positive
    Increases False Positive
  76. McNaughton Rule
    Insanity Defense
  77. Self-Instructional Training
    Repetition, Graded practice and cognitive restructuring
  78. OCD gender
    Prevalence of OCD in girls is much lower in boys
    Equally common in males and females. But, males develop btwn 6-15 yrs and females develop btwn 20-29 yrs.
  79. Protocol Analysis
    Verbalizing your thought process as you perform the task
  80. Crisis Intervention
    • Secondary prevention.
    • Early identification and treatment
    • Screening
  81. Primary prevention
    • immunization, condoms, safety air bags
    • Preventing problems from occurring.
  82. Leadership in Organization
    • Greater satisfaction + Democratic leaders
    • Productivity higher under Authoritarian and Democratic leaders than Laissez-faire
  83. Gerstmann's Syndrome
    • Agraphia, Acalculia, Rt-lt disorientation and finger agnosia
    • Dominant Parietal lobe
  84. Kluver Bucy Syndrome
    Placidity, apathy, hyperphagia and hypersexuality
  85. Studies on the nature of teachers' interactions with students have shown that:
    Gender of students NOT teacher, has an impact on the teacher's interactions with students.
  86. Who exercises privilege?
    CLIENT
  87. Who asserts privilege?
    the INTERN
  88. Cattel-Horn-Carroll theory
    3 strata model: g, broad cognitive abilities, narrow cognitive abilities.
  89. WISC-IV
    Four basic underlying factors to the construct of intelligence
  90. NURTURIST view of language development
    Children learn to speak through exposure to adult speech.
  91. Primacy Effect
    • Impression Formation
    • Tendency for initial information to carry more weight than information received later.
  92. Kochanska development of conscience
    related to Parenting Style and Child's Temparement
  93. Piaget's Moral Development
    Related to Cognitive Development
  94. Categories of Seizures
    • a. Partial (electrical abnormalities in a focal area of the brain)
    • b. Generalized (electrical abnormalities throughout the brain)
  95. Partial Seizures
    • a. Simple Partial: size of the affected area can be as small as a thumb or half of the body.
    • -Pt remains conscious during the seizure and can later describe it in detail.
    • b. Complex Partial: begin with a few minutes of disorientation then staggering, purposeless movements and aimless wandering.
    • -Loss of consciousness
  96. Prospective Memory
    Remembering that one had planned to do something at a particular time.
  97. Procedural Memory
    • Implicit or non-declarative
    • procedures that are remembered automatically without conscious awareness (e.g., riding a bike)
  98. Declarative Memory
    • Explicit
    • Involves conscious recollection of information or experience
  99. 2 types of declarative memory
    • 1. episodic : autobiographical events
    • 2 semantic: meaning of words and facts
  100. Accommodations
    • Adjusting to reality demands by reorganizing, modifying and expanding cognitive structures.
    • E.g., adding a 2nd floor
  101. Assimilation
    • Taking in a new experience and incorporating it into existing cognitive structure
    • e.g., putting books on shelf
  102. HIPAA documentation
    must be kept for 6 yrs. when it was created or when it was last in effect
  103. Malnutrition during fetal period results in
    decrease number of brain cells
  104. After birth trauma
    can result in reduced number of axonal or dendritic growth
  105. Retroflection:
    • turn back onto the self what they would like do to
    • others. Can result in self-destructive behavior.
  106. Deflection:
    • People distance themselves from their feelings through
    • distraction, humor, generalization and asking questions rather than
    • making statements
  107. Rogers
    • -people have inborn capacities for purposive,
    • goal-directed behavioral
    • -pathology are thought to be due to incongruence between
    • the self (true feelings) and experience (ability to be aware of these
    • feelings and express them to others).

    -empathy, warm and genuineness
  108. Prototaxic
    • Birth to 7 mos
    • Sensory experiences
  109. Parataxic
    • Temporal sequence is the only conception of causality.
    • Transference is a parataxic distortion
  110. Syntaxic
    • causal sensation, logical and
    • analytical thinking and ability to predict cause from knowledge of
    • their effects
  111. Gay Identity Model
    • Sensitization
    • Confusion
    • Assumption
    • Commitment
  112. Sensitization (Gay Model)
    Pre-pubescent. Feels different from peers and ultimately internalizes a negative self-concept
  113. Confusion (Gay model)
    Around age 18. attempt to become heterosexual
  114. Assumption (Gay Model)
    • Manage social stigma. increased contact with other gays and lesbians.
    • Acknowledging homosexual identity while having negative attitudes
  115. Commitment (Gay Model)
    Integration of homosexual identity
  116. Ritalin (side effects)
    loss of appetite, insomnia, headaches, GI distress, sedation and dry mouth
  117. Lithium (side effect)
    Weight gain and tremors
  118. Rater leniency
    Use forced-choice format,. Rater selects adjectives from a pairs of equally desirable or undesirable choices
  119. BARS
    based on critical incidents (hypothetical situations)
  120. Persuasion Model
    • 1. Peripheral
    • 2. Central
  121. Peripheral (Persuasion)
    Focus on aspects that are not central to the message, but rather are peripheral to it, such as the speaker's appearance, attractiveness, eloquence and expertise
  122. Central (Persuasion)
    Message elaboration. Person pays attention to the message and thinks deeply about the relevant information
  123. Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Approach
    • 1. Microsystem
    • 2. Mesosystem
    • 3. Exosystem
    • 4. Macrosystem
    • 5. Chronosystem
  124. Arithmetic and Digit Span
    • Both load on the working memory
    • -Affected by ACUTE hearing infection
  125. Wernicke's Aphasia
    • Cannot COMPREHEND language, but speak fluently
    • Has difficulty repeating verbal task
  126. Broca's Aphasia
    Difficulties in articulation, changes in prosody and some difficulties in comprehension
  127. Conduction Aphasia
    • Connection between Broca's and Wernicke's is affected.
    • Intact comprehension and fluency but cannot Repeat words.
  128. Best predictor of adolescent alcohol use
    Level of alcohol use by parents and peers
  129. Retroactive Inhibition
    when new info interferes with the recall of PREVIOUSLY learned info
  130. Social facilitation occurs most frequently when the task is
    SIMPLE, Familiar, Routine
  131. Most powerful memory aid
    Visual Imagery
  132. Which arithmetic operation affect the mean
    Addition and Subtraction
  133. Which arithmetic operation affect the SD and the variance
    Multiplication and Division
  134. Sending bills to collection agency
    ETHICAL as long as the patient is informed first. It is preferable, though not necessary, to inform the patient of your policy at the outset of therapy
  135. Best tx for elderly patients with paranoia
    Neuroleptics
  136. Interval Sampling
    When behavior has no beginning or end
  137. Event Sampling
    When a behavior occurs infrequently
  138. BiPolar Disorder
    • Consistently linked to Genetic Factors.
    • Stress has been linked to the onset of 1st and 2nd manic episodes.
    • Has high rates co-morbid of substance abuse
  139. Rehm's Self-Control model of depression
    • Integrate cognitive as well as behavioral models of depression.
    • -result of negative self-evaluations, lack of self-reinforcement and high rates of self-punishment.
  140. Classical Test Theory
    views individual test score as sum of true score variability and error score variability (X=T+E)
  141. Empirical Criterion Keying
    MMPI. items are chosen based on their ability to discriminate group membership.
  142. Ipsative Measure
    only information on the tester, w/o info about how the individual compares to others
  143. Item Response Theory
    • used to calculate to what extent a specific item on a test correlates with an underlying construct.
    • -looks at subject's performance on a test item as representing the degree to which the subject has a latent trait
  144. Beta blockers side effect
    Less common: depression, anxiety and thought disturbance
  145. PKU
    • caused by a genetic defect.
    • -impairments in the metabolism of amino acids cause toxic chemicals to remain unmetabolized, resulting in severe mental retardation.
  146. Long tem Potentiation (LTP)
    Affect memory
  147. False Alarm
    False Positive
  148. Miss
    False Negative
  149. Hit
    True Positive
  150. Correct Rejection
    True Negative
  151. Barnum Effect
    People's tendency to agree that vague descriptions apply to them (e.g., newspaper horoscopes)
  152. Avoidant Babies
    Rarely cry when mother leaves and then ignore her upon return
  153. Making test more difficult
    • Raises predictor cutoff
    • # of FP and TP are decreased
    • # of TN and # of FNs are increased
  154. Covert Sensitization
    Aversive conditioning conducted in imagination and is used exclusively for problematic behaviors like drinking or cigarette smoking
  155. RET
    form of CBT that is confrontive and focuses on irrational beliefs
  156. Rogerian
    point out incongruence between self and experience
  157. Bowen
    Evaluate the levels of differentiation in each family member
  158. Selective Mutism
    • sign of fear and tx is guided imagery
    • SSRIs are commonly prescribed
  159. DNA and RNA have been associated with
    Memory and genetics
  160. Immediate memory
    Sensory memory remains intact in amnesia
  161. In pts with amnesia, which remains intact?
    Immediate or Sensory Memory
  162. Source Memory
    Ability to remember the context in which material was learned
  163. Imprinting
    • "critical period"
    • appearance of a stimulus during a critical period that determines the nature of the stimulus in a stimulus-response pairing
  164. Which research design is least likely threatened by history?
    ABAB design
  165. Sampling Error
    applies to the standard error of the mean
  166. James Marcia-Identity Model
    • Diffusion:
    • Foreclosure
    • Moratorium
    • Achievement
  167. Diffusion (ID Model)
    No crisis and No commitment
  168. Foreclosure
    Commitment but NO crisis
  169. Moratorium
    Crisis but NO commitment
  170. Conformity is bet when
    moderate group size (about 7) and unanimous members
  171. Theme Interference Problems
    Consultee-centered case consultation
  172. Intervention that has the lowest recidivism of spousal abuse
    Arrest and Imprisonment
  173. An individual who is uncomfortable with his or her homosexual orientation
    Sexual Disorder, NOS
  174. Alternate approach to treating chronic pain
    Hypnotherapy
  175. Testimonials
    May be used and solicited as LONG as they are not solicited from current patients or those vulnerable to undue influence.
  176. AA adheres to
    Disease Model of Addiction
  177. Marlatt's Model of Addiction
    • Overlearned Habit.
    • -Uses CBT for relapse prevention
  178. Conducting an ABAB design, risk is
    Failure of DV to return to baseline
  179. Neo-Freudians emphasize in
    Social Interaction
  180. Substance most likely to cause hallucinations upon WITHDRAWAL
    • -Phenobarbital (barbiturates)
    • -Alcohol, sedatives, hypnotics and anxiolytics
  181. Opiod Withdrawal (Heroin)
    Flu-like Symptoms
  182. Amphetamines Withdrawal
    Dysphoria, Fatigue, Unpleasant dreams, increased appetite and psychomotor agitation
  183. A child with a reading disability
    Will continue to have problems in adulthood.
  184. Reliability Coefficient
    How likely a person will maintain his or her position in the group if an equivalent test is given
  185. Kohlberg's 3 Levels of Moral Development
    • 1. Pre-conventional: Compliance with rules to avoid punishment and get rewards.
    • a. Punishment-Obedience
    • b. Instumental Hedonism
  186. Kohlberg's 3 Levels of Moral Development
    • 2. Conventional: Conforming to rules to get social approval.
    • a. Good Boy/Good Girl
    • b. Law and Order
  187. Kohlberg's 3 Levels of Moral Development
    • 3. Post-Conventional
    • a. Morality of Contract, Rights and Laws
    • b. Morality of Conscience
  188. Mediated Generalization
    Stimulus Generalization
  189. Which methods can help control HALO EFFECT?
    • 1. Training the raters
    • 2. Forced response format in which the rater is forced to choose between 2 eaually desirable or undesirable attributes
    • 3. BARS: objective rating methods
  190. Relative Methods
    • -does NOT help control halo effects
    • -compares employees with one another.
  191. Opiod Withdrawal (Heroin)
    Flu like symptoms
  192. Phenobarbital (Barbiturates) withdrawal causes
    Hallucinations
  193. Reliability Coefficient
    Most people will maintain their relative ranking or position in the group on retesting.
  194. Idiosyncracy Credits refer to
    a group's tolerance of an individual's disregard for group norms. They can be earned by initially conforming to the group norms.
  195. Classic Aging Profile
    Maintenance or enhanced crystallized (e.g., vocabulary, information) intelligence with diminished fluid (e.g., digit symbol, picture arrangement) intelligence
  196. Approach-Approach Conflict
    person must choose between 2 desirable alternative and subsequent to choosing, slightly devalues the alternative not chosen.
  197. Approach-Avoidance
    • Choices between something that is positive but has negative consequence.
    • E.g., going to a party but gets grounded for going to the party
  198. Chi-square CANNOT be run
    When repeated observations are made
  199. Prescribing the symptom
    Strategic Family Therapy
  200. Concern for Double Binds
    Communications Family Therapy or MRI from Palo Alto
  201. Serotonin and GABA
    involved with mood disorders
  202. GABA
    associated with anxiety, epilepsy and schizophrenia
  203. Idiographic
    Used to describe single subject approaches
  204. Nomothetic
    Group Approach
  205. Ipsative data
    results from a foced -choice format. It can only describe relative strengths or interests within a subject and cannot be used for comparisons across subjects.
  206. Power
    • Ability to correctly reject the null.
    • If power is reduced, less likely to correctly reject the null.
  207. Type II or Beta
    • incorrectly accepting the null hypothesis. Fails to reject an a false null
    • if a null hypothesis states a patient is healthy, and the patient is in fact sick, but the test fails to reject the hypothesis, falsely suggesting that the patient is healthy.
    • Saying there isn't a difference when there is.
    • False Negative
  208. Type I or Alpha
    • Null hypothesis is falsely rejected.
    • Saying there is a difference when there isn't.
    • For example, if a null hypothesis states a patient is healthy, and the patient is indeed healthy, but the test rejects this hypothesis, falsely
    • suggesting that the patient is sick.
    • False Positive. Test says pt is sick, but really healthy
  209. The fetish object is:
    • Conditioned Stimulus.
    • Sexual excitement is the response
  210. To distinguish between conditioned and unconditioned
    Ask the question, Is the response universal? Does everybody has the same response?
  211. HI LPC do best
    in MODERATELY favorable situations
  212. Low LPC do best
    at the extremes (either highly favorable or unfavorable)
  213. Standard Error of MEASUREMENT
    -Average Amount of Error in calculating each subject's IQ score.
  214. Standard Error of the ESTIMATE
    -Average amount of error in Predicting each subject's high school GPA
  215. Standard Error of the Mean
    -Average amount of error in the GROUP's Mean in relation to POPULATION Mean
  216. Standard Deviation
    Average Amount of Spread in the group's IQ scores
  217. Integrity vs. Despair (Late Adulthood)
    Age 55 to death
    Outcome = Wisdom
  218. Generativity vs. Stagnation (Middle Adulthood)
    Age: 35 to 55
    Outcome: Capacity to care for others and to give to future generations
  219. Intimacy vs Isolation (Early Adulthood)
    Age 18-35
    Outcome: Affiliation and Love
  220. Identity vs Role Confusion
    Age 12-18
    Outcome: Devotion and Fidelity
  221. Industry vs Inferiority
    Age 6-12
    Outcome: Competence
  222. Initiative vs Guilt
    Age 3-5
    Outcome: Purpose
  223. Autonomy vs Shame
    Age 18 months - 3 years
    Outcome: Self-control, courage and will
  224. Trust vs Mistrust
    Age 0-18 months
    Outcome: Hope
  225. Chronic Middle Ear Infection
    Will have problems with verbal comprehension, including vocabulary, similarities and word reasoning
  226. Acute Hearing Infection
    Will have problems with working memory (i.e., digit span and arithmetic)
  227. Sensitive Period
    Certain things occur for development to proceed normally, if they don't occur, future events May Be Able to compensate
  228. Critical Period
    • Certain things must occur for development to proceed. If they don't, person WILL NOT be able to compensate
    • -Physical development has critical periods
  229. Stroop Color Interference
    Assess Frontal Lobe deficits
  230. Huntington's Disease
    Inherited disease marked by motor disturbances
  231. When ethical guidelines conflict with the law...
    psychologists make known his or her commitment to the Ethics Code and attempt to resolve the conflict responsibly.
  232. 9 year old is asked why one should not steal...
    Because one can be punished for ste
  233. 9 year old is asked why one should not steal...
    Because one can be punished for stealing!
  234. Diagnosis of Dementia, Alzheimer's Type
    made by neuropsychological testing and clinical history
  235. Confabulation on the Rorschach
    Cognitive impairment (e.g., MR) It's a claw, it's a lobster!
  236. Freud / Erikson I
    Latency / Industry vs. Inferiority (age 6 to 12)
  237. Freud / Erikson II
    Phallic / Initiative vs guilt (age 3-6)
  238. Freud / Erikson III
    Genital / Identity vs. Role confusion (age 12-18)
  239. Alzheimer's neurotransmitter
    Decreased Acetylcholine
  240. Depression (neurotransmitter)
    Norepinephrine and Serotonin
  241. Less common S/E of beta blockers
    Depression, anxiety and thought disturbances
  242. Critics of Piaget
    Piaget underestimated children's abilities at certain ages
  243. Consultant working with employees in order to improve the implementation of a program
    Consultee-Centered Administrative Consultation
  244. How to develop a program for customer relations. Focus on the program itself
    Program-Centered Administrative Consultation
  245. Consultant works with the consultee on his or her difficulties with patients
    Consultee-Centered Case Consultation
  246. Focus on helping the consultee with a particular patient
    Client-Centered Case Consultation
  247. Structure responsible for sleep wake cycle
    Hypothalamus, located in the temporal lobe
  248. Common cause of MR
    during embryonic stage of development
  249. Attribution to depression, helplessnes and hopelessness
    Internal, Stable and Global
  250. Correlation of IQ scores among siblings
    = .50
  251. Rational-Economic Model (Classical decision theory)
    • Compiling all relevant information, investigating all possible solutions and choosing the very best one
    • -rarely implemented because it is time consuming
  252. Behavioral Decision Theory
    Recognition of Real-life Limits, adopts a satisficing style, implements the first proposal that is adequate
  253. Frame of Reference
    used to improve the accuracy of performance ratings.
  254. ANCOVA
    extraneous variable is unanticipated. co-varying out an extraneous variable.
  255. Extraneous variable
    a variable that correclates with the outcome measure
  256. Quality Assurance
    focuses on availability, adequacy and appropriateness of services
  257. Utilization Review
    Necessity of procedures and cost
  258. In psychoanalytic theory, mania masks
    underlying depression
  259. Eruption of id impulses into the ego
    results in Anxiety and an attempt to bolstering defense mechanisms
  260. Broca's area
    • located in the left frontal lobe, which controls the muscles that produce speech.
    • -includes difficulties iwth speech production and fluency
  261. Test-retest reliability would be the most appropriate type of reliability for
    a test measuring an enduring trait
  262. What type of evaluation if consultant is evaluating the program on an on-going basis as it is being implemented?
    Formative Evaluation
  263. What type of evaluation if consultant evaluate at the end of the program?
    Summative Evaluation
  264. What type of consultation if consultant focuses on helping a consultee on some genral clinical issues?
    Consultee-centered CASE consultation
  265. What type of consultation if consultant focuses on helping consultees overcome problems that limit programmatic change?
    Consultee-centered ADMINISTRATIVE consultation
  266. What risk factor results in reduced number of brain cells or neurons?
    Fetal Malnutrition
  267. What factor helps neuronal growth, develop more axons and dendrites and increases connections?
    Brain development after birth in response to stimulation and experience
  268. Information will be most likely transferred to long-term memory when it is
    REHEARSED
  269. What extends the capcaity of short-term memory?
    Chunking
  270. How long does HIPAA requires that all documentation be kept?
    6 years.
  271. Concurrent vs. Predictive Validity
    • Criterion-related validity
    • Concurrent and Predictive difference is that in concurrent tests are taken at the same time.
    • Predictive: test is taken and then a few months later correlation is checked with another measure
  272. 2 scales that do not correlate
    • Discriminant (Divergent) validity
    • Correct for attenuation of error
  273. Canon-Bard Theory
    Emotions and physiological experience are simultaneous
  274. James-Lange
    • "we see a bear, then we run"
    • "you lose a fortune, you cry"
    • -emotions is followed by an action
  275. Schacter and Singer (2 factor theory of emotion)
    People search for environmental cues to interpret their unexplained emotions
  276. Exposing individuals to arguments against their views, then refuting (disproving) the argument
    may serve to inoculate them against persuasive views
  277. Expectancy
    refers to the person's belief that effort will result in successful task performance (similar to self-efficacy)
  278. Instrumentality
    belief that success on the task will result in rewards
  279. Valence
    Value that the reward has for the person, or how desirable the reward is.
  280. Equity Theory
    input vs output compared to other employees
  281. Interest Tests
    good predictors of job choice but NOT job performance
  282. Performance is a function of
    opportunity (environmental varibales and organizational support), capacity/ability (individual attributes) and willingness/motivation (work effort)
  283. Job context
    lower level needs. dissatisfaction
  284. Rational Economic Model of decision making
    • All facts and all possible alternative solutions be analyzed before choosing the optimal solution
    • -oppostive to administrative approach
    • -more complete knowledge base
  285. Expert Power
    supervisor's expertise because they the education and training
  286. Conventional
    Rule-regulated, orderly and unambiguous
  287. Enterprising
    • like the opportunity to influence others and obtain power.
    • Transformational Leaders
  288. Positive feedback loop
    deviation-amplifying loop
  289. Negative feedback loop
    deviation dampening. decreases the likelihood of changes and helps maintain the homeostatic state
  290. Circular questioning
    Milan model
  291. Introjection
    • taking things as a whole
    • -result is person is gullible and compliant
  292. Projection
    results in paranoia
  293. Retroflection
    results in self-desctructive behavior
  294. Fundamental rule of psychoanalysis
    Free Association
  295. Escape Paradigm
    • Aversive stimulus cannot be avoided.
    • Punishment is inevitable
  296. Cronbach's alpha
    • highest when similar in content, but different in temperament.
    • -reliability is highest when test items are homogenous and test takers are heterogeneous
  297. Coefficient Alpha
    • KR
    • -subtype of internal consistency. by taking the mean of all possible split halves
  298. Random Selection
    Increases external validity
  299. Random assignment
    increases internal validity
  300. Assumption to both parametric and nonparametric statistics
    Random Selection
  301. Fundamental Attribution Error
    tendency to overemphasize DISPOSITIONAL factors when making attirbutions about the behavior of other people
  302. Self-serving Bias
    You attribute your success to your OWN ability (internal factors) but you attribute your failure to the shortcomings of others (external factors)
  303. Actor-observer Bias
    • You and another fail.
    • -You attribute your failure to external or situational factors while you attribute the other person's failure to internal or dispositional factors
  304. When a listener feels pressured,
    • Reactance happens.
    • -resistance to persuasion increased
  305. Social Facilitation
    • Coaction (presence of others working alongside an individual) and audience (presence of a passive observer).
    • -enhances performance of simple, well-learned behaviors but impairing performance on complex, newly-learned behaviors
  306. Group Tipping
    Make each contribution public
  307. In order to help a group resist persuasion,
    Mild argument for the opposition and then refute those arguments
  308. Low-context
    Meaning is based on what is explicitly verbalized (actual words)
  309. High-context
    the situation or context and non-verbal cues significantly affect the meaning of what is communicated
  310. Internal responsibility, External control
    It's my fault and there's nothing I can do about it
  311. Marginalization
    occurs when there is both a loss of cultural id as well as little interest in the dominant culture
  312. Assimilation (Berry's acculturation model)
    When people don't maintain their cultural id and adopt the attitudes and views of the dominant culture
  313. Separation
    When people value their original culture and avoid itneractions with the dominant culture
  314. Integration
    When people both value their own cultures as well as seek interactions with the dominant culture
  315. MMPI- K scale
    • Measures guardedness or defensiveness.
    • Moderator variable, by adding points to the clinical scales
  316. L scale
    naive attempt to present favorably
  317. F scale
    attempts to fake bad, random responding, overall distresss and pathology, measures infrequently endorsed items.
  318. VRIN and TRIN
    response inconsistency
  319. Halo Bias
    EACH employee the same on all dimensions of job performance
  320. Frame of Reference
    • decrease rater bias
    • -ability of raters to assign accurate performance ratings
  321. Critical Incident Technique
    incidents are identified by the supervisor who observes an employee while s/he works
  322. Most predictive of job performance across different jobs and job settings
    • From OCEAN personality type:
    • -Conscientiousness
  323. Best predictor of job performance
    • General mental ability tests
    • (Cognitive)
  324. What is useful when errors that occur during on-the-job training would be too costly?
    Vestibule Training
  325. According to Holland, the optimal situation is for the job environment to match the individual's,
    Personality (RIASEC)
  326. In Expectancy Theory, Instrumentality refers to:
    the relationship between performance and outcome
  327. Selection of a leadership style, according to Hersey and Blanchard's, should be based on:
    Subordinate's Job Maturity
  328. Job satisfaction has the strongest inverse correlation with
    Turnover rate
  329. A transformational leader is most liekely to use:
    Framing--describing an organizations' goals and activities in ways that make them more meaningful to employees
  330. Decision Tree
    Vroom, Yetton and Jago
  331. Social loafing occurs
    when group is large and task is additive
  332. IQ rate for identical twins reared together
    .85
  333. Learning CAN occur without reinforcement
    Tolman
  334. Biological sibling reared together
    .45
  335. Pro and Retro in memory interference
    • Refers to which material is being interfered with
    • If new material (pro) and old material (retro)
  336. Biological parent/child reared together
    .39
  337. Cross-sequential design
    Cross sectional + Longitudinal
  338. Age related decline in IQ is most likely to be found in what design?
    cross-sectional because it is susceptible to cohort (intergenerational) effects
  339. According to Schaie, which IQ domain showed significan decline prior to age 60?
    Perceptual Speed
  340. Optimal item difficulty level for a T/F test
    .75
  341. D = 1.0 in item discrimination index
    upper group answers correctly and none in the lower group
  342. Slope (steepness) of the item response curve indicates the item's:
    DISCRIMINABILITY
  343. The steeper the slope
    the greater the discrimination
  344. What reliability statistic to use to estimate the effects of lengthening a test item
    Spearman Brown
  345. what statistic to use when test items are scored dichotomously (right or wrong)
    KR-20
  346. Test-retest reliability
    Coefficient of stability
  347. Mono-trait and heteromethod (same trait/ different method) coefficients are large,
    Convergent Validity
  348. Heterotrait-monomethod (different traits / same method) coefficients are small
    Divergent / discriminant validity
  349. Which defines the relationship between a predictor's relaibility coefficient and its criterion-related validity coefficient?
    validity coefficient cannot exceed the square root of its reliability coefficient.
  350. Percentile ranks and standard scores share in common
    Both reference an examinee's score to those achieved by examinees in the standardization sample
  351. Scores on extraneous variable
    correlated with scores on the DV
  352. Clusters (groups) of subjects rather than individual subjects are
    selected from the population
  353. Cluster sampling involves
    randomly selecting pre-existing groups of individual from the population
  354. Vicarious Liability
    Supervisors and employers may be legally responsible for the actions of their supervisees and employees.
  355. Protects a client's confidentiality in the context of legal proceedings
    Privilege
  356. When consulting with colleagues, psychologists do not disclose confidential information that reasonably could lead to the id of client with whom they have a confidential information
    unless they have obtained prior consent of the person
  357. It is not necessary,
    to get client's permission when his/her identity will not be revealed
  358. Career Anchor
    • self-concept
    • motivation of priorities that define how people see themselves and hteir work.
  359. Cathecolamines
    Norepinephrine and Dopamine
  360. Heteronomous Morality
    Preschool children who believe thatrules are absolute and unchangeable
  361. Consequences of an act. Good behavior is rewarded and bad beahvior is punished
    Preconventional
  362. Desire to maintain existing social laws, rules and norms
    Conventional
  363. self-chosen priinciples
    Post conventional
  364. Refers to disorders of a functional system. It is typically used for problems in movement such as incoordination, often accompanied by slurred speech.
    Ataxia
  365. Inability or deficit in using or understanding language.
    Aphasia
  366. Crystallized
    Dependent on learning and education
  367. Negative attitudes based on sexual orientation,
    Sexual prejudice
  368. refers to heterosexuals' dread of being in close quarters with homosexuals and homosexuals' self-loathing.
    Homophobia
  369. parents have the right not only to inspect and review their children's school records but also to challenge the contents of records.
    Buckley Ammendment
  370. It indicates the proportion of variability shared by the two variables, or the proportion of variability in one variable that can be accounted for by variability in the other.
    Coefficient of determination
  371. Stimulate divergent thinking
    Brainstorming
  372. Howard's phase model
    • Remoralization
    • Remediation
    • Rehabilitation
  373. In depressed pts, one draws a specific conclusion without supporting evidence, or even in the face of contradictory evidence.
    Arbitrary inference
  374. Client therapy matching predicts
    treatment length
  375. changing or adapting to the environment by altering one’s own behaviors or responses
    Autoplastic
  376. perspective involves focusing on extrinsic distinctions that have meaning for the observer of the culture or society
    Etic
  377. perspective involves focusing on the intrinsic distinctions that are meaningful to members of a particular culture or society.
    Emic
  378. refers to changing or adapting to the environment by effecting changes in the environment.
    Alloplastic
  379. Self-esteem is enhanced by believing one’s own group (the
    ingroup) is attractive and belittling the members of the other groups (the outgroups)
    Social identity
  380. when clear internal cues are absent, individuals infer feelings and beliefs by observed behavior or external cues
    self-perception theory
  381. individuals need and seek confirmation of their self-concept, whether the confirmation is positive or negative
    self-verification
  382. Anterograde amnesia and proactive inhibition
    both problems remembering after the trauma
  383. retroactive interference vs. retrograde amnesia
    problems with remembering before the trauma
  384. associated features of Somatoform D/o
    anxiety and depression
  385. Tiedeman and O'Hara based their career development model on
    ego identity model
  386. natural and similarities in grammar are present in many different languages is associated with
    Nativist theory
  387. Larry P vs. Riles case
    • -use of standardized intelligence tests for assessing children for placement in special classes for the mentally retarded.
    • -banned the use of IQ tests in the placement of minority children in special education classes.
  388. Point-biserial correlation
    one dichotomous variable and one continuous
  389. Vygotsky
    • social constructivism. social and cultural factors.
    • influenced reciprocal teaching
  390. Piaget
    cognitive constructivism
  391. Of the big 5 personality, which is the strongest predictor of job satisfaction
    Neuroticism. low neuroticism and high extraversion
  392. Of the big 5 personality, which is the strongest predictor of job performance
    Conscientiousness
  393. Most affected factor in WAIS-III among TBI patients
    Processing Speed
  394. Contemplation stage
    aware of the problem and thinking of change
  395. inability to recognize familiar objects by sight
    visual agnosia
  396. standard error of estimate
    how well the equation fits the data. how far we can expect to make predictions
  397. According to Beck's cognitive-behavioral model, automatic thoughts are
    interpretations of a situation that determine one's behavioral and emotional responses
  398. hyperthermia, altered consciousness, tachycardia, muscle rigidity, and autonomic dysfunction
    symptoms of NMS from antipsychotic
  399. In Dissociative Amnesia,
    memory loss is usually for information acquired after the emotional trauma that brings on the symptoms
  400. Tendency of individuals who start off with similar views to end up with a more extreme position after group discussion
    Group polarization
  401. Absence (petit mal) seizures are located in the
    Thalamus
  402. Partial seizures are located in the
    temporal lobe
  403. Damage to the prefrontal cortex affects
    memory and attention
  404. Employee has low ability but high willingness
    Leadership style = selling
  405. High ability but low willingness employee
    Participatory style
  406. High in task and accepting responsibility
    Delegating
  407. Low in accepting responsibility and ability to do the task
    Telling
  408. Potential negative side effects of SSRI
    Worsen sleep and anxiety symptoms
  409. Biographical information form
    predicts job turnover
  410. Selye's GAS
    • Alarm: after a person becomes aware of the stressful situation
    • Resistance: summon their resources and meet the challenge
    • Exhaustion: after trauma is over
  411. Highest rate of suicide occurs among
    Divorced parents
  412. Views patient's symptoms as pathological (brief therapy or crisis intervention)
    Brief Therapy
  413. Betablockers effect on the receptor site
    • antagonist.
    • blocking access to the neurotransmitter site
  414. Pooled variance
    Population variances are equal
  415. When there is a brief delay, recall is best for words
    in the beginning of the list
  416. Beta or Type II error
    retaining a false null. failing to detect a true effect
  417. Low heterotrait and low heteromethod
    High in divergent validity
  418. Flextime
    associated with productivity, satisfaction, absenteeism
  419. Compressed workweek
    Less impact on absenteeism
  420. Violence against lesbians and gays
    Heterosexism
  421. NV measure of intelligence for deaf people
    Hiskey and Nebraska
  422. Leading cause of death in the US across all age groups
    Heart disease followed with cancer
  423. According to Piaget, cognitive adaptation to the work environment is achieved through
    accommodation and assimilation
  424. Hallucinations after continued use
    flashbacks
  425. Recurrence of hallucinations long after intoxication is the result of
    Mescaline
  426. Children with ADHD are most likely to score lowest on the WISC-III
    Digit Span and Arithmetic
  427. Most important therapeutic group factors according to Yalom are
    Interpersonal learning, catharsis and cohesiveness
  428. Reduced speech, depression and apathy are results of which damage
    Left frontal lobe
  429. Grouping students by ability
    Tracking
  430. High in control but high in warmth
    Authoritative
  431. Hi control but lo warmth
    Authoritarian
  432. Lo in control and low in warmth
    Neglecting, rejecting, uninvolved

    • -kids have worse coping skills
    • -The children tend to be antisocial, lack self-regulation, are more immature, and score lower on cognitive tests.
  433. children have difficulty controlling their impulses and, although they are intelligent, they are not motivated to achieve.
    Permissive or Laissez-faire
  434. OCPD involves ---- contrary to OCD
    orderliness, perfectionism and control
  435. Dopamine Hypothesis
    • Psychomotor stimulants activate dopamine receptors and
    • anti-psychotic medications causes motor disturbance
  436. Prader-Willi is caused by
    Chromosomal deletion
  437. Xtra chromosome results in disorders like
    Downs Syndrome and Klinefelter
  438. Missing chromosome and occurs in females (missing another X)
    Turner
  439. On MMPI, hi scale 1 (hypochondriasis) and 3 (hysteria), low scale 2 (depression)
    Conversion V
  440. F scale score is significantly lower than scores on the L and K scales and indicates an attempt to present in a favorable light
    Defensive profile
  441. scale 7 score is significantly lower than scores on scales 6 and 8
    Paranoid valley or psychotic V
  442. On MMPI, scale 5 score is significantly lower than scores on scales 4 and 6.
    Passive-Aggressive
  443. MMPI scales,
    • 1-Hypochondriasis
    • 2-Depression
    • 3-Hysteria
    • 4-Psychopathic Deviate
    • 5-M/F
  444. MMPI scales- II
    • 6-Paranoia
    • 7-Psychastenia (Anxiety)
    • 8-Schizo
    • 9-Mania
    • 0-Social Introversion
  445. Frequently used projective test
    Rorschach
  446. Elaborative learning or rehearsal
    Helps material transferred from short term to long term memory
  447. According to Beck, a depressed person is most likely to maintain
    external locus of control and internal responsibility
  448. "zero temptation and 100% self-efficacy"
    result of complete behavioral change in the termination stage
  449. Ability to maintain a mental picture after a toy is removed
    Eidetic or photographic memory
  450. Seroconversion, as it relates to HIV
    • process of becoming antibody positive.
    • the conversion from seronegative (HIV negative) to seropositive (HIV positive)
  451. Which lobe controls motor movements?
    cerebellum, basal gangila, supplementary motor area and parietal lobe
  452. Frequently used scale to measure orientation
    • GOAT
    • Galveston Orientation and Amnesia Test
  453. SCAD profile on the WAIS-III
    Symbol Search, Digit Symbol Coding, Arithmetic and Digit Span
  454. Low Working Memory and Low Processing Speed
    indicates ADHD
  455. Reactance
    react in a way that is opposite of what is requested or desired
  456. Negative Reinforcement
    Escape Conditioning
  457. Smoking cessation outcome
    Related to level of dependence
  458. Best tx for GAD
    CBT
  459. Mainstream Americans
    Internal locus of control and internal locus of responsibility
  460. Working memory of the WAIS-III
    Digit span, arithmetic and L-N sequencing
  461. Flooding
    Exposure to a previously CS in the absence of a real aversive stimulus
  462. To determine how well an examinee did on a test in terms of a specific standard of performance (norm vs. criterion)?
    Criterion-reference
  463. Monoamine neurotransmitter subdivided in 2 categories
    • (1) catecholamines
    • (2) indolamines
  464. Cathecolamines are -synthesized from the amino acid tyrosine
    • DOPAMINE
    • NOREPI
    • EPI
  465. Indolamine are synthesized from tryptophan
    Serotonin
  466. Robber's Cave experiment: children in a summercamp divided into two groups on an arbitrary basis and made to engage in a competition with each other. Hostility and dislike decreased when task was to cooperate.
    indicated superordinate goals reduce hostility between groups
  467. Naltrexone - decrease alcohol cravings
    Side effects are
    nausea, headache, insomnia and anxiety
  468. Pt with Alzheimer's disease has lowest scores on --- of WAIS-III
    • Performance Subtest:
    • -Perceptual Organization
    • -Processing Speed
  469. Strong Interest Inventory (like all Interest Inventory) predicts
    Occupational satisfaction
  470. Tx of Bulimia, what med effect would be most effective
    increase serotonin level
  471. Forebrain structure that is important for motivated and emotional behavior
    limbic system
  472. Serial position effect
    • w/o delay, beginning and end will be recalled the best
    • with delay, beginning only in long term; end of list is still in short tem
  473. Meds for Parkinson does what
    increase dopamine and blocks Ach receptors
  474. Crymptomnesia
    memory is mistaken for imagination
  475. Tip of the tongue
    person is able to recall parts of an item or related information, but is frustratingly unable to recall the whole item
  476. Blocking
    multiple similar memories are being recalled and interfere with each other.
  477. Source confusion
    person misremembers seeing an event personally when it was actually seen on tv
  478. Tx for chronic pain
    relaxation and coping skills
  479. Reasoning involving by the tendency to move from one specific case to another without taking the general into account
    Transduction (occurs in preoperation)
  480. Inability to focus on more than one aspect of a situation or object at a time
    Centration
  481. Refers to the inability to transfer one type of conservation to another
    Horizontal Decalage
  482. Significant finding for a one-way ANOVA
    indicates that population means are different
  483. Primary circular reaction
    E.g., thumb sucking
  484. Vegetative Symptoms
    sleep difficulties, appetite change, psychmotor retardation, reduced energy level, changes in sexual desire/function
  485. 1st degree relatives of schizophrenics are most likely to be diagnosed with
    Schizotypal PD
  486. Feigning memory disorder
    Loss of personal ID but memory for other events is intact
  487. Greatest increase in suicide rate is among
    ages 15-24
  488. In cases of litigation, the key defense for a psychologist is
    sufficient record keeping
  489. Murray Bowen's approach to family therapy is strongly influenced by
    psychodynamic approach
  490. IPT believes that depression is caused by
    disturbances in early life related to attachment
  491. Norm-referenced test
    compares a student with the age or grade-level expectancies of a norm group
  492. One way of joining the family
    Mimesis
  493. In factor analysis, explained variance of one of the factors
    EIGENVALUE
  494. Mini-Mental Status Exam is useful for
    screening for Dementia in older adults
  495. Predictors of adolescent suicide
    depression, use of drugs/alcohol and antisocial behavior
  496. Explicit memory
    • Recall or recognition tests
    • active or conscious role in processing information
    • sense of remembering specific prior experience
  497. Tonic phase
    Extension of the limbs
  498. Clonic phase
    violent rhythmic contractions
  499. Purpose of reframing
    to increase family's compliance with the therapist directives and the treatment plan in general
  500. Highest suicide rates in men
    Older men. Ages 75-79
  501. Reality Therapy
    • uses WDEP technique
    • -based on 5 survival; to love and belong ; power
    • ; freedom ; and fun
  502. Early remission
    there is more than one month but less than 12 months of remission
  503. Sustained
    12 months or longer of remission
  504. Adult Attachment Interview
    • 1. autonomous
    • 2. pre-occupied
    • 3. dismissing
  505. Functional Nocturnal Enuresis
    not associated with any particular stage of sleep
  506. Predictors of child psychopathology
    Low SES, severe marital discord, large family size, parental criminality and placement outside of home
  507. Broca's area
    Left frontal lobe
  508. Wernicke's area
    posterior part of temporal lobe
  509. Damage to arcuate fasciculus (nerve fibers that connect Broca's and Wernicke's) result in
    Conduction Aphasia
  510. APA record keeping guideline
    7 years post-termination or 3 years after minor reaches age of maturity
  511. Leading cause of infant mortality
    congenital malformations
  512. Compensatory
    Multiple Regression
  513. Views rules as unchangeable are absolute; punishment should fit the consequence
    Heteronomous (ages 4-7)
  514. Rules are determined and alterable. Intent of the actor should fit the punishment
    Autonomous Reality
  515. Discriminant Analysis is used for
    predicting
  516. Structural Equation Model
    used to find cause-effect
  517. Inverted U theory
    anxiety and performance. Performance is improved when there's moderate anxiety
  518. Tx for Dysthymia vs. MDD
    IPT and CBT are effective but not quite effective than it is for MDD
  519. someone with high self-esteem will views his/her achievement
    as internal and specific
  520. what brain structure mediates eating and sex, acting as a satisfaction center?
    cingulate gyrus
  521. what characteristic will someone who successfully goes through identity and identity confusion phase
    Fidelity
  522. Repudiation
    • adolescent compensates for a lack of identity by
    • fusing with a group that eagerly provides its members with details of an identity: religious cults, military organizations, or hate groups.
  523. Fanaticism
    • occurs when the person becomes overzealous in
    • identification to a particular role to the point that he or she is
    • intolerant of others.
  524. DSM-IV TR approach uses what approach
    Polythetic approach: a person may have some but not all of the possible diagnostic criteria.
  525. BASIC ID: biological, affective, sensations, images, cognitions, interpersonal relationship,drugs--biological functions, nutrition and exercise
    Multimodal Approach (Lazarus)
  526. Which is least likely affected by normal aging?
    Picture Recognition
  527. tendency to rate at the low end
    Strictness or severity bias
  528. Hostede's five cultural dimensions
    power distance (a.), uncertainty avoidance (b.), individualism, masculinity (d.), and long-term orientation
  529. Bupropion (Wellbutrin & Zypan)
    NDRI (norepinephrine dopamine reuptake inhibitor)
  530. SNRI (selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor)
    Stratteri, non-stimulant used for tx of ADHD
  531. SSNRI : Venlaflexin (Effexor) and duloxetine (Cymbalta)
    • tx of GAD, MDD and PD.
    • less chances for overdose and more rapid onset than tricyclics
  532. Neural development
    proliferation, migration, differentation and myelination
  533. Predictor of job turnover
    Bio data
  534. Sibling relationship during pre-adolescence
    Closeness and Conflict
  535. What part of the Ethical Code“set forth enforceable rules.”?
    Ethical Standards
  536. What part discusses the intent, organization, procedural considerations, and scope of application of the Ethics Code?
    Introduction
  537. What part provide “aspirational goals to guide psychologists toward the highest ideals of psychology?
    Preamble and General Principles
  538. Endogenous Opiates
    Endorphines
  539. Exogenous Substance
    Heroine
  540. Cingulate Cortex
    Emotions and Motivation
  541. Damage to the temporal lobe will produce deficts in
    Episodic Memory
  542. Tx for Factitious D/O
    Support psychotherapy outpatient
  543. What tx for parasuicidal behaviors (e.g., cutting) found in Borderline Per D/O
    Dialectical Behavior Therapy
  544. Hypnagogic
    Transition state betweene being awake and falling asleep
  545. More effective when the task is easy (decentralized vs. centralized)
    Centralized
  546. Centralized
    ALL communication passes through one position or person, have been shown to be more efficient when tasks are mundane and simple.
  547. Covert Modeling
    • Involves the learning of new behaviors or the
    • altering of existing behaviors by imagining scenes of others interacting with the environment.
  548. Covert Sensitization
    An individual imagines he/she is engaging in the undesirable behavior and then imagines an aversive consequence for doing so.
  549. Highest co-morbidity with GAD is
    Social Phobia
  550. Partial Reinforcement Effect
    organisms respond for a longer period of time during extinction trials when they were previously reinforced on an intermittent schedule than when they were reinforced on a continuous schedule.
  551. Most effective tx for anti-social juvenile offenders
    Multi-systemic therapy
  552. Multicultural competence
    Awareness, knowledge and skill
  553. HMO will likely approve if
    patient has recently shown a decline
  554. American Disabilities Acts
    Protects individuals participating in a drug rehab program who are no longer using drugs
  555. To best reduce likelihood of changing someone's persuasive message
    Expose to a weak argument against current position
  556. Prefrontal cortext
    Working memory NOT motor functions
  557. Women diagnosed with Borderline Personality
    Similar to men with Anti-social PD
  558. Amount of variability accounted for
    eta squared
  559. Criterion Contamination
    increases validity coefficient
  560. a lack of insight into one’s own behavior,
    denial, an attempt to create a favorable impression, or the tendency to answer items “false.”
    High L scale
  561. Which is predictive of retirement satisfaction?
    Participation in activities
  562. Which group is not considered a race?
    Hispanics
  563. Federal law regarding HMO requirement for mental health service
    short term (not to exceed 20 visits) crisis intervention and medical treatment and referral for alcohol and drug addiction
  564. Psychoanalytic therapist will attribute anxiety to
    failure of ego defense mechanism
  565. What school of psychology: is structured and goal-oriented.
    relapse prevention is a focus throughout and it is based on an collaborative model?
    Beck's Cognitive
  566. Beck Depression II inventory
    • 0 to 13 = minimal depression.
    • 14-19 = mild depression,
    • 20-28 = moderate
    • 29 or higher reflect severe depression.
  567. Differences in size and body type between males and females
    Sexual dimorphism
  568. Which is the MOST stable trait (OCEAN)?
    Extraversion
  569. Which is the LEAST stable trait?
    Neuroticism
  570. 5 levels of Maslow's hieracrchy
    Physiological, Safety, Social, Esteem and Self-Actualization
  571. Opiate antagonist that is used to treat alcohol
    abuse disorders by reducing the desire for alcohol after drinking has stopped and is also often used in maintenance treatment of opiate addiction.
    Naltrexone
  572. Bupropion, Varenicline and Nicotine replacement interventions
    Tx for nicotine dependence and smoking cessation
  573. Proposes convergent and divergent thinking as dimensions of intelligence
    Guilford
  574. Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence
    Cattell
  575. Heterogeniety of group members
    Positively correlated with creativity and decision making
  576. Brain structure for kids with ADHD
    frontal lobe, striatum and cerebellum
  577. For a diagnosis of Tourette's disorder
    must have multiple motor tics and at least one vocal tic
  578. Areas of the brain that is related to declarative memory are
    diencephalon, peripheral cortex and hippocampus
  579. Fielder situational control:
    leader-employee relations, task structure, position or legitimate power
  580. Panic Disorder with Agoraphobia highly associated with
    GAD
  581. Differences between the groups in experience
    rather than age that could be accounting for differences between them on the dependent variable.
    Cohort effect. Usually in cross-sectional design
  582. Atrophy of the caudate nucleus
    Huntington disease
  583. A term to describe when a therapist’s ability to
    recognize or consider other symptoms or conditions is “overshadowed” by one aspect of a client’s symptoms or condition
    Diagnostic Overshadowing
  584. States that certain small areas of the brain can take on the function of larger, related areas that have been destroyed
    Principles of Equipotential
  585. States that in many types of learning the cerebral cortex acts as a whole
    Principle of mass action
  586. States that feedback either reward or punishment will automatically strengthen or weaken responses
    Law of Effect
  587. States that the strength of response to a stimulus is not dependent on the strength of the stimulus
    All or none principle
  588. Keeps internal conflict or need out of conscious awareness
    Primary Gain
  589. Symptoms helps the individual avoid an unpleasant activity or obtain support from the environmnet
    Secondary Gain
  590. Pseudocyesis: believes she is pregnant and has physical signs of pregnancy but is not pregnant OR a person who has had one or two unexplained physical symptoms for less than 6 months
    Somatoform Disorder NOS
  591. Briequet Syndrome
    Somatization D/O
  592. Sensation of tingling, pricking, or numbness of
    an individual’s skin, more generally known as the feeling of “pins and needles” or a limb “falling asleep”
    Paresthesia
  593. Paired comparison as opposed to merit comparisons
    More precise but difficult because it is time consuming
  594. Relations between the genders are characterized by the coexistence of power differences and intimate interdependence
    Ambivalent Sexism Theory
  595. Repeatedly presenting the CS without the US
    In-vivo exposure
  596. Yerkes and Dodson
    inverted U relationship between arousal and performance
  597. Which of the WAIS subtest is most stable across lifespan
    Verbal Comprehension
  598. Primary function of school psychologist
    Assess, consult and make recommendations
  599. Damage to the right hemisphere
    • can produce apathy or undue cheerfulness.
    • Pt will respond indifferently and exaggerated jocularity if rt hemisphere is damage.
  600. Standard Error is NOT
    a measure of variability
  601. Rationalist, cognitive therapy includes
    cognitive restructuring, thought stopping, and reducing automatic thoughts
  602. Anxiety and depression share which of the following symptoms?
    Negative Affect
  603. A predictor that is highly sensitive for identifying the presence of a disorder would most likely result in
    Higher false positive
  604. The combination of social avoidance, fear of humiliation, and loneliness are characteristic of
    Avoidant PD
  605. Tension-reduction hypothesis proposes that alcohol abuse is due to
    Conditioning
  606. The idea that one is unique and not subject to the natural laws that govern others
    Personal Fable
  607. Misinformation effect (hindsight bias)
    Retroactive Interference
  608. The effects on children of observing aggressive models, such as through television violence, are
    both short and long term
  609. What are the two dimensions of leadership?
    Consideration and initiating structure
  610. An effective treatment for panic attacks
    ANTI-DEPRESSANTS
  611. Substance Dependence
    Tolerance-Withdrawal,
  612. Cognitive distortions, such as overgeneralization, personalization, magnification, arbitrary inference, and selective abstraction are reflected statements
    of Beck's Cognitive Theory
  613. What is needed for a successful malpractice lawsuit against a psychologist?
    Sufficient Harm
  614. Performance generally
    • Decreases in the presence of others if the desired behavior is not well-learned.
    • If you don't know something too well, having someone watch you can increase your anxiety
  615. Client-centered approach
    Congruence between self and experience
  616. Involves episodes of abrupt awakening, usually with a panicky scream; however, a dream is not recalled.
    Sleep terror disorder
  617. To determine the degree of association between two variables that are reported in terms of ranks
    Spearman Rho
  618. The best predictor(s) for alcoholism
    Family hx of alcoholism
  619. Which of the following describes the parents who are most likely to raise very aggressive children?
    Parents who use frequent and intermittent violence and have a laissez-faire attitude toward their children's behavior
  620. The experience of REM-rebound occurs most often when
    sedatives are discontinued
  621. Which is related to exposure to sexual abuse, sexual harassment or sexual trauma?
    • Vaginismus involves involuntary contractions of the muscles in the outer third of the vagina when vaginal penetration is attempted) doesn’t have a clear
    • etiology,
  622. Behavioral treatment for obsessions would most likely involve
    Deliberate exposure and thought stopping
  623. Folie a deux
    Two people who share a delusion of similar content
  624. The risk for a monozygotic (identical) twin of a schizophrenic proband to be diagnosed with Schizophrenia is
    46%
  625. The risk for a dizygotic (identical) twin of a schizophrenic proband to be diagnosed with Schizophrenia is
    17%
  626. Provides information about a student in the
    context of the existing curriculum. The results of such an assessment not only indicate the student's performance level -- they also provide feedback about the instruction itself, so that necessary changes can be made to better fit the student's ability and current knowledge.
    Curriculum Assessment
  627. Primary Memory
    Short-term Memory
  628. Secondary Memory
    Long-term Memory
  629. Sensory Memory
    Has unlimited capacity, duration is 2 seconds and it is an external representation of the stimuli.
  630. Alzheimer's usually characterized in 3 stages
    • Stage 1: which lasts 2-4 years, short-term memory loss
    • begins. Patients in this stage frequently complain about forgetting where they placed things.
    • Stage 2: which lasts 2-10 years, there is further memory
    • impairment (mostly explicit rather than implicit) and they begin having difficulty performing complex tasks, such as balancing a checkbook or going grocery shopping. They may get lost in familiar places and become
    • apathetic.
    • Stage 3:theymay lose the ability to speak and become unable to recognize family, friends, or even themselves. They lose all capacity to care for themselves and have difficulty walking, are incontinent, and are ultimately bedridden and often die of an opportunistic respiratory
    • infection.
  631. Avolition
    Lack of initiation, motivation or goal-directed activities and is considered a "negative" symptom of Schizophrenia or Schizophreniform disorder
  632. Anhedonia (b.)
    refers to the inability to experience pleasure.
  633. Anti-depressant medication (ADM) vs Cognitive Therapy
    • ADMs are more effective among severely depressed pts.
    • No difference between Cog Therapy and ADMS among mild to moderate depression
  634. Percentile ranks tend to ________ raw score differences in the middle of the score distribution and _______ raw score differences at the end of the distribution.
    • percentile ranks tend to overestimate raw score
    • differences in the middle of the score distribution and underestimate raw score differences at the end of the distribution.
  635. Confluence Model
    • each succeeding child has less of the family's resources available to him or her.
    • -Only child will score the highest
  636. Prevalence rates for Panic Disorder
    1 to 2% in community samples
  637. Freedom from Distractibility
    Arithmetic and Digit Span
  638. We likely change our attitudes to change our behavior
    Cognitive Dissonance
  639. Based on Elkind,
    adolescent assumes that one is unique
  640. Flashbulb memories are part of
    Episodic memory
  641. Smallest unit of language
    Phoneme
  642. Smallest unit of language that carries meaning
    Morpheme
  643. A whole word, which, when combined with gestures and intonation can express an entire thought.
    Holophrastic
  644. Refers to knowledge we have about our own rather than about the nature of human knowledge in general.
    Metacognition
  645. Success Identity
    William Glasser
  646. Multiple Hurdles
    Not all predictors are administered. If fail in one predictor, others are not administered
  647. Examinees must succeed in ALL predictors
    Multiple Cut-OFF
  648. Storke in the left side of the brain
    left-right disorientation, Wernicke's aphasia, finger agnosia
  649. Valence refers to
    desirability of the outcome
  650. Motivational Interviewing
    OARS
  651. Iatrogenic Stressor
    One that is produced by the treatment. Loss of companionship is NOT an Iatrogenic
  652. Watson
    predict and control behavior
  653. Mini Mental Status Exam
    Only cognitive functions
  654. Rational Economic
    Places too many demands on the organization
  655. Self-perception
    People base their attitude on behaviors
  656. In consultee-centered case consultation, the consultant's role is
    SUPERVISOR
  657. Equifinality
    Different circumstances and opportunities lead to similar outcomes
  658. Multifinality
    Similar conditions results in different outcomes
  659. Parents of antisocial children are usually
    Lax and uninvolved
  660. negative item discrimination
    more low-achieving examinees answered the item correctly than high-achieving
  661. low F scale score and elevated L and K scale scores
    Parental Alienation
  662. Mini Mental Status Exam
    screening for Dementia
  663. Simon's decision making
    Rational (administrative) decision makers are not always completely rational in making choices
  664. Learned Optimism- M. Seligman
    tend to make external, unstable, and specific attributions in response to negative events.

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