ch 5 nutrition

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darbydo88
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69503
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ch 5 nutrition
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2011-02-28 10:37:49
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nutrition
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nutrition
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  1. what does protein mean
    of first rank
  2. what are proteins composed of?
    • carbon,
    • hydrogen,
    • oxygen,
    • nitrogen
  3. how much of the cell is protein
    50% (most plentiful next to water)
  4. Some proteins are working molecules (6)
  5. –Enzymes
    • –Antibodies
    • –Transport vehicles
    • –Hormones
    • –Cellular “pumps”
    • –Oxygen carriers
  6. • Some proteins are structural molecules(7)
    • –Tendons
    • –Ligaments
    • –Scars
    • –Fibers of muscles
    • –Cores of bone and teeth
    • –Filaments of hair
    • –Materials of nails
  7. Hair, nails and outer skin
    made of
    scleroprotein (non digestible)
  8. Where else is protein
    • bone
    • blood
    • muscles
  9. fxn of protein
    • –Builds new cells
    • –Maintains tissues
    • –Synthesizes new proteins
  10. ?% of protein eaten daily goes into
    making enzymes that
    –Digest food
    –Assemble or divide molecules
    50
  11. made of amino acids
    and nucleic acids
    Nucleoproteins
  12. a protein from which connective
    tissues are made
    Collagen:
  13. Structure of amino acids
    • amine group
    • acid group
    • side chain
  14. Side chains Make the amino acids differ in 4
    • • Size
    • • Shape
    • • Electrical charge (+, -, 0)
    • • behavior
  15. cannont be synthesized by the body...must be aquired by food
    Fully indepsensible amino acids
  16. 9 fully indespensible amino acids
    • • Histidine
    • • Isoleucine
    • • Leucine
    • • Lysine
    • • Methionine
    • • Phenylalanine
    • • Threonine
    • • Tryptophan
    • • Valine
  17. 5 Dispensable Amino Acids
    (non-essential)
    •Synthesized by the human body
    • –Alanine
    • –Aspartic acid
    • –Cystine
    • –Glutamic acid
    • –Serine
  18. Amino Acids that are essential in
    the diet during certain stages of
    development or in certain
    nutritional or disease states
    • –Arginine
    • –Cysteine
    • –Tyrosine
    • –Glutamine
    • –Glycine
    • –Proline
  19. Sufficient amounts of the 9 EAAs to
    maintain nitrogen balance
    High Quality Protein
  20. Balance of reactions in which proteins are broken down or destroyed and rebuilt
    • Nitrogen Balance
  21. Measure of how well food proteins can be converted into body proteins
    • Biologic Value
  22. Sustains optimal growth because have
    all 9 IAAs present
    • Animal sources (meat, fish, milk, eggs) • Soy
    • Complete Proteins
  23. –One or more IAAs missing in a food
    –Supports life, but not normal growth
    • Legumes, nuts, grains
    • Low-Quality Proteins
  24. single amino acid chanis are called
    peptides
  25. normal pH of the stomach
    1.5
  26. How Much Protein Do We Need?
    • DRI
    • –Depends on body size
    • –For adults: 0.8g/kg body weight/day
    • –Minimum: 10% of total calories
    • –Maximum: 35% of total calories
    • –Infants, children, pregnant women and
    • athletes may need slightly more
  27. Groups at risk for protein deficiency:
    • –Children of low socioeconomic rank
    • –Chronically ill
    • –Hospitalized patients
    • –Elderly living alone or institutionalized
  28. Even a single event of proteinenergy
    malnutrition in the first
    year of life can lead to
    • –delayed deciduous tooth eruption
    • –delayed loss of primary teeth
    • –increased number of caries
  29. • Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM)
    • –World’s most widespread malnutrition –Includes both Marasmus & kwashiorkor
    • –Adult PEM is often associated with longterm drug and/or alcohol abuse
    • –a.k.a. Protein-Calorie Malnutrition (PCM)
  30. ? children
    face starvation and suffer
    the effects of severe
    malnutrition and hunger
    Over 500 million
  31. –Chronic inadequate food intake
    • Inadequate energy (calories), vitamin,
    mineral, and protein intake
    –Person is shriveled and lean all over
    • Marasmus
  32. –Swollen belly and skin rash are present
    –Severe acute malnutrition
    • Too little high-quality protein to support body
    functions (IAA deficiency)
    • Develops when a child is weaned from breast
    milk to a low-nutrient diet
    • Kwashiorkor
  33. Too much protein may cause health risks for (3)
    • heart
    • kidney
    • bones (too much protein, body excretes Ca)
  34. for vegitarians what should be monitored
    • zinc
    • Ca
    • iron
  35. What might you need to supplement for vegitarians
    • B12
    • Vit D
  36. –Lacto-vegetarian
    • •Dairy and plant foods
    • •No meat, poultry, fish, eggs
  37. –Lacto-ovo vegetarian
    •No meat, poultry, fish
  38. –Ovo-vegetarian
    • •Plants and eggs only
    • •No meat, poultry, fish, dairy
  39. –Vegan (strict)
    •Only plant sources
  40. – From protein energy malnutrition
    (PEM)
    – Depressed immune responses,
    stress, infection
    • Erythema
    • Necrosis
    • Cratered papilla
    • NUG
  41. – Severe gangrenous process
    • Starts as small gingival ulcer
    • Becomes necrotic and spreads to
    lips, cheeks, jaw tissues
    • Lowered immune response
    • Noma

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