154: HR: Exam 1

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breannecunningham
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69512
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154: HR: Exam 1
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2011-02-28 14:05:02
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hr
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Chap 1-4
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  1. Staffing
    the process of acquiring, deploying, and retaining a workforce of sufficient quantity and quality to create positive impacts on the organization's effectiveness.
  2. Implications of the definition of Staffing:
    • -Acquire, deploy, retain
    • -Staffing as a process or system
    • - Quantity and quality issues
    • -organization effectiveness
  3. 9 Staffing Levels
    • 1. Acquire or Develop Talent
    • 2. Hire Yourself or Outsource
    • 3. External or Internal Hiring
    • 4. Core or Flexible Workforce
    • 5. Hire or Retain
    • 6. National or Global
    • 7. Attract or Relocate
    • 8. Overstaff or Understaff
    • 9. Short or Long-Term Focus
  4. Four Staffing Quality Level Decisions
    • 1. Person/Job or Person/Organization Match
    • 2. Specific or general KSAOs
    • 3. Exceptional or acceptable workforce quality
    • 4. Active or passive diversity
  5. Person/Job match
    Job's requirements and rewards match with the Person's KSAOs and motivation.
  6. HR Outcomes of a Person/Job Match and/or Person/Organization Match
    • -Attraction
    • -Performance
    • -Retention
    • -Attendance
    • -Satisfaction, etc
  7. Person/Organization Match
    The Organization's values, new job duties, ability of the person to perform multiple jobs, and long-term employment options matching with the Person's KSAOs and Motivation
  8. 5 Staffing System Components
    • 1. Applicant (person)
    • 2. Organization (job)
    • 3. Recruitment (identification and attraction)
    • 4. Selection (assessment and evaluation)
    • 5. Employment (decision making and final match)
  9. 2 Components of Staffing Organizational Model
    • 1. Organizational Strategy
    • 2. HR Strategy
  10. The Organizational Strategy as a part of the Staffing Organizations Model's two components:
    • 1. Mission and vision
    • 2. Goals and objectives
  11. HR strategy involves
    key decisions about size and type of workforce to be

    • -acquired
    • -trained
    • -managed
    • -rewarded
    • -retained
  12. HR strategy may flow from
    organizational strategy
  13. HR strategy may directly influence
    formulation of organization strategy
  14. KSAO
    • Knowledge
    • Skills
    • Abilities
    • Other
  15. Human capital
    Their KSAOs and their motivation to do the job
  16. Staffing quantity focuses on
    levels
  17. Staffing quality focuses on
    person/job and person/org match
  18. Staffing strategy
    requires making key decisions about acquisition, deployment, and retention of a company's workforce
  19. The most prevalent form of employment relationship is
    Employer-Employee Relationship
  20. Employer-employee relationship involves
    an agreement between employer and employee on terms and conditions of employment (employment contract)
  21. Independent Contractors
    are not considered employees, in a legal sense, of employer
  22. temporary employees
    do not have special legal stature
  23. at-will employment
    an employer can fire an employee, or the employee may leave the employer, at any time for any reason.
  24. 3 Reasons we need laws and regulations in HR
    • 1. Balance of Power
    • 2. Protection of Employees
    • 3. Protection of Employers
  25. What are the 5 sources of our laws?
    • 1. Common Law
    • 2. Constitutional Law
    • 3. Statutory Law
    • 4. Executive Order
    • 5. Agencies
  26. 5 EEO/AA Laws
    • 1. Civil Rights Act of 1964
    • 2. Age Discrimination in Employment Act (1967)
    • 3. Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) (1990)
    • 4. Rehabilitation Act (1973)
    • 5. Executive Order 11246 (1965)
  27. 11 Issues outlined in the Civil Rights Act of 1964
    • 1. unlawful employment practices
    • 2. establishment of disparate impact
    • 3. disparate treatment
    • 4. mixed motives
    • 5. bona fide occupational qualification (BFOQ)
    • 6. Testing
    • 7. Test Score Adjustments
    • 8. Seniority and merit systems
    • 9. Employment Advertising
    • 10. Pregnancy
    • 11. Preferential treatment and quotas
  28. 5 Issues of the Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967
    • 1. Prohibited age discrimination
    • 2. BFOQ
    • 3. Factors other than age
    • 4. Seniority Systems
    • 5. Employment advertising
  29. 6 Issues covered by the ADA (Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990)
    • 1. Qualified individuals with disabilities
    • 2. they have to be able to do the essential job functions
    • 3. Reasonable accommodation and undue hardship
    • 4. Selection of employees
    • 5. Medical exams for job applicants and employees
    • 6. Affirmative Action
  30. Two issues covered by the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and Executive Order 11246 of 1965
    • 1. Prohibited discrimination
    • 2. Affirmative Action
  31. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibited discrimination against
    race, color, religion, national origin, and sex.
  32. Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967 prohibited discrimination against
    those age 40 and over
  33. ADA of 1990 prohibited discrimination against
    a qualified individual with a disability
  34. the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 prohibits discrimination against
    an individual with a handicap
  35. Executive Order 11246 of 1965 prohibits discrimination against
    race, color, religion, national origin, and sex
  36. The enforcement agency behind the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967, and the ADA of 1990 is
    the EEOC (Equal Employment Opportunity Commission)
  37. The enforcement agency behind the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and Executive Order 11246 of 1965 is
    the DOL (Department of Labor) or the OFCCP (Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs)
  38. disparate treatment involves
    allegations of intentional discrimination where employer knowingly discriminated on a basis of specific characteristics
  39. Evidence of disparate treatment
    may be direct, consist of mixed motive, or may be inferred from situational factors
  40. 4 Situational Factors of Disparate treatment
    • 1. Person belongs to a protected class
    • 2. Person applied for, and was qualified for, the job
    • 3. Person was rejected despite being qualified
    • 4. Position remained open and employer continued to seek applicants after rejecting the qualified person
  41. Conciliation
    When a charge is filed with the EEOC, there is an investigation to determine "reasonable cause," and if it is found, conciliation is pursued.
  42. Conciliation involves
    voluntary settlement process or preferred method of settlement
  43. Mediation
    neutral, third part mediates dispute to obtain agreement to resolve dispute
  44. Impairment
    a physiological disorder affecting one or more of a number of body systems or a mental or psychological disorder
  45. BFOQ
    Bona fide Occupational Qualification
  46. Right to sue letter
    issued to the complaining party by the EEOC when they decide not to pursue a claim
  47. Immigration Reform and Control Act (1986)
    prohibits employment of unauthorized aliens
  48. 5 Public sector staffing practices
    • 1. Open announcement of all vacancies
    • 2. Large numbers of applicants
    • 3. Legal mandate to test applicants only for job-related KSAOs
    • 4. Limits on discretion in final hiring process
    • 5. Right of applicants to appeal hiring decisions, testing process, or actual test content and method
  49. 4 Examples of External Influences on Staffing
    • 1. Economic Conditions
    • 2. Labor Markets
    • 3. Technology
    • 4. Labor Unions
  50. Economic conditions effect on Staffing
    • -economic expansion and contraction
    • -job growth and job opportunities
    • -internal labor market mobility
    • -turnover rates
  51. Labor markets effect on Staffing
    • -Labor demand: employment patterns, KSAOs sought
    • -Labor supply: labor force, demographic trends, KSAOs available
    • -Labor shortages and surpluses
    • -Employment arrangements
  52. Technology's effects on Staffing
    • -elimination or creation of jobs
    • -changes in skill requirements
  53. Labor Unions effect on Staffing
    • -Negotiations
    • -Labor Contracts: staffing levels, staffing quality, internal movement
    • -Grievance systems
  54. 6 Labor Union Contract Clauses that affect Staffing
    • 1. Management Rights
    • 2. Jobs and job structure
    • 3. External Staffing
    • 4. Internal Staffing (job posting, lines of movement, seniority)
    • 5. Grievance procedure
    • 6. Guarantees against discrimination
  55. 4 Part Process of Human Resource Planning
    • 1. Forecast labor requirements
    • compare
    • 2. Forecast Labor availabilites
    • 3. Determine gaps
    • 4. Develop Action Plans
  56. HR Initial 5 Decisions
    • 1. Strategic Planning
    • 2. Planning time frame
    • 3. Job categories and levels
    • 4. Head count (current workforce)
    • 5. Roles and responsibilities
  57. Two parts of the initial strategic planning decision
    • 1. comprehensiveness
    • 2. linkages with larger organizational mission
  58. The initial decision, job categories and levels asks the question:
    What jobs will be covered by a plan?
  59. 2 types of techniques for Forecasting HR Requirements
    • 1. Statistical
    • 2. Judgemental
  60. "top-down" approach
    Managers at the top of the company determine staffing requirements and communicate their decisions to lower level employees.
  61. "bottom-up" approach
    Lower level employees communicate their staffing requirements to top-level employees in order to determine the final staffing requirement.
  62. Markov Analysis
    provides a means of analysing the reliability and availability of systems whose components exhibit strong dependencies.
  63. Limitations of Markov Analysis
    Markov diagrams for large systems are generally exceedingly large and complicated and difficult to construct.
  64. 4 Advantages of internal staffing
    • 1. Positive employee reactions to promotion from within
    • 2. Quick method to identify job applicants
    • 3. Less expensive
    • 4. Less time required to reach full productivity
  65. 4 Disadvantages of internal staffing
    • 1. No new KSAOs into the organization
    • 2. May perpetuate current underrepresentation of minorities and women.
    • 3. Small labor market to recruit from
    • 4. Employees may require more training time
  66. 4 Advantages of External staffing
    • 1. new KSAOs
    • 2. more minorities and women to draw from
    • 3. Large labor market to draw from
    • 4. less training time
  67. 4 Disadvantages of External staffing
    • 1. Negative reaction by internal applicants
    • 2. Time consuming to identify applicants
    • 3. Expensive to search external labor market
    • 4. More time required to reach full productivity
  68. options for dealing with employee shortages
    • Short term:
    • -increase overtime or part time
    • -temporary hires
  69. Long term:
    • -Hires
    • -Retrain
  70. options for dealing with employee surpluses
    • Short term:
    • -freeze hires
    • -reduce overtime or part-time

    • Long term:
    • -Layoffs
    • -Retirement incentives
  71. What is the purpose of Affirmative Action Plans (AAPs)?
    to remedy past discrimination
  72. Job family
    a grouping of jobs, usually according to function
  73. Job category
    a grouping of jobs according to generic job title or occupation
  74. job
    a grouping of positions that are similar in their tasks and task dimensions
  75. Position
    a grouping of tasks/dimensions that constitute the total work assignment of a single employee
  76. Task dimension
    a grouping of similar types of tasks
  77. task
    a grouping of elements to form and identifiable work activity
  78. element
    the smallest unit into which work can be divided
  79. job analysis
    process of studying jobs to gather, analyze, synthesize, and report information about job requirements
  80. What is a job requirements matrix?
    A chart that identifies specific tasks, task dimensions and the importance (or % of time spent) on that task, as well as the KSAOs that are required for each task.
  81. Job description
    • Includes:
    • -Job family, job title, job summary
    • -task statements and dimensions
    • -importance indicators
    • -Job context indicators
    • -Date conducted
  82. Job specifications
    describes KSAOs
  83. 5 Methods of Collecting Job Requirements information
    • 1. Prior Information
    • 2. Observation
    • 3. Interviews
    • 4. Task questionnaire
    • 5. Committee or task force
  84. 4 Sources to be used when collecting Job Requirements info
    • 1. Job analyst
    • 2. Job incumbents
    • 3. Supervisors
    • 4. Subject matter experts
  85. task statements
    objectively written description of the behavior or work activities engaged in by employees in order to perform the job
  86. task dimensions
    involves grouping sets of task statements into dimensions, attaching a name to each dimension. (also referred to as "duties," or "responsibilities.")
  87. Competency
    an underlying characteristic of an individual that contributes to job or role performance and to organizational success
  88. the "Great 8" Competencies
    • 1. Leading
    • 2. Supporting
    • 3. Presenting
    • 4. Analyzing
    • 5. Creating
    • 6. Organizing
    • 7. Adapting
    • 8. Performing
  89. Extrinsic rewards
    • -external to the job itself
    • -designed and granted to employees by the org
    • -pay, benefits, work schedule, advancement, job security
  90. Intrinsic rewards
    • -intangibles
    • -experienced by employees as an outgrowth of doing the job
    • -variety in work duties, autonomy, feedback, coworker and supervisor relations
  91. employee value proposition
    the "package" or "bundle" of rewards provided to employees and to which employees respond by joining, performing, and remaining with the organization.
  92. Legal issues regarding job analysis:
    • -you must do a job analysis and it must be for the job which the selection instrument is to be utilized
    • -job analysis should be in writing
    • -it should describe in detail the procedure used
    • -job data should be collected from a variety of current sources by knowledgeable job analysts
  93. Legal issues regarding Essential Job Functions
    • -fundamental job duties of the job of an individual with a disability
    • -the reason the position exists is to perform the function
    • -the incumbent is hired for their expertise or ability to perform that particular function

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