Histo Lecture 12

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Author:
paffman7
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69624
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Histo Lecture 12
Updated:
2011-03-02 10:49:07
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PT624
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Description:
Renal Control of Fluid
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  1. What are the three areas of reabsorption in the nephron?
    • Proximal tubule
    • Loop of Henle
    • Distal tubule
  2. Water follows what in the capillaries?
    NaCl
  3. What is the proximal tubule in charge of?
    Reabsorbing most nutrients
  4. What is transcellular transport?
    Movement through the cytoplasm
  5. What is paracellular transport?
    Movement through "tight junctions" between cells
  6. Most humeral control of kidney reabsorption involves what?
    Alteration in NaCl reabsorption
  7. What are some some hormones affecting NaCl reabsorption?
    Angiotensin II, aldosterone, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), brain netriuretic peptide (BNP), catebholeamines
  8. What does Renin do?
    • Catalyzes conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II
    • Occurs in the lungs
  9. Renin is released from kidney cells in response to
    • Decreased perfusion pressure in the kidney (decreased BP)
    • Decreased filtered load of NaCl (decreased GFR)
    • Inreased sympathetic nerve activity
  10. Where does Angiotensin II act?
    Stimulates NaCl reabsorption in the proximal tubule
  11. What is aldosterone secreted in response to?
    Plasma concentration of angiotensin II
  12. What is epinephrine/norepinephrine released in response to?
    • Low ECF
    • Stimulates reabsorption of NaCl in all parts of nephron
  13. What stimulates sympathetic input to the kidney?
    Low ECF volume or low BP
  14. What is dopamine released in response to?
    Increased ECF
  15. What is the function of dopamine on the kidney?
    Inhibits NaCl/H2O reabsorption in the proximal tubule
  16. What stimulates secretion of ANP and BNP?
    Increase in BP and ECF
  17. What are the functions of ANP and BNP?
    • Decrase total peripheral resistance
    • Inhibit Nacl/H2O reabsorption in the collecting duct
    • Reduce ADH secretion from posterior pituitary
  18. Natriuretic peptides are secreted by what?
    By the heart in response to increased ECF or BP
  19. How do ANP and BNP perform their functions?
    • Stimulate vasodilation
    • Increase H2O/NaCl excretion
    • Inhibits secretion of renin, aldosterone and ADH
  20. Where is Urodilatin secreted?
    By distal tubule and collecting duct
  21. What stimulates secretion of urodilatin?
    Increase in BP and ECF
  22. What does urodilatin inhibit?
    NaCl and H2O reabsorption in the collecting duct
  23. What is the definition of dehydration?
    Increased plasma osmolarity and more concentrated urine
  24. What is definition of over-hydration?
    Decreased plasma osmolarity and more dilute urine
  25. What is the normal range in adults for osmolarity?
    280-295mOsm
  26. Where is ADH synthesized?
    hypothalamus
  27. Where is ADH stored and secreted from?
    posterior pituitary
  28. What is ADH released in response to?
    Low BP and high Osmolarity
  29. Where are the baroreceptors that monitor arterial pressre?
    • aortic arch
    • carotid sinus
  30. Where are the baroreceptors that monitor venous blood pressure?
    • Atria
    • pulmonary vessles
  31. What is the osmolarity range for urine?
    50-1200mOsm
  32. Ascending LOH absorbs what and not what?
    • NaCl
    • NOT WATER
  33. Decreased filling of pulmonary system/atria results in:
    • Increased sympathetic activity to generate BP
    • Increase ADH secretion - increases ECF
  34. What is the systemic response to increased ECF?
    • Decreased renal sympathetic signaling
    • Increased release of ANP/BNP and urodilatin
    • Inhibition of ADH secretion and activity
    • Decreased renin secretion resulting in decreased angiotensin and aldosterone
  35. What is the systemic response to decreased ECF?
    • Incrased renal sympathetic signaling
    • Inhibition of ANP/BNP and urodilatin secretion
    • Increased ADH secretion
    • Increased renin secretion resulting in increased angiotensin and aldosterone

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