Hemostasis

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Author:
duncables
ID:
69649
Filename:
Hemostasis
Updated:
2011-02-28 17:41:48
Tags:
Clin Path Coagulation
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Description:
coagulation, hemostasis, clinical Pathology
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  1. HEMORRHAGE:
    non-specific bleeding
  2. EPISTAXIS:
    nose bleed
  3. MELENA:
    digested blood in stool
  4. HEMOPTYSIS:
    coughed up blood
  5. HEMATEMESIS:
    blood in vomit
  6. HEMATURIA:
    blood in urine
  7. HEMATOMA:
    focal pool of blood “balloon”
  8. PETECHIAE:
    multiple tiny hemorrhages
  9. ECCHYMOSES:
    like above but larger
  10. PURPURA:
    bruising
  11. THROMBUS:
    blood clot in vessel
  12. EMBOLUS:
    thrombus in motion, or any abnormal object floating in circulation
  13. EMBOLISM:
    emboli too large for circulation
  14. INFARCT:
    Necrosis due to emboli obstructing blood flow to or from and organ or tissue
  15. SHOCK:
    Hypovolemic or normovolemic; ultimate result is hypotension, lock of O2 delivery; septic hypovolemic, anaphylactic, cardiogenic etc,
  16. HYEREMIA:
    Increase blood flow into arterioles; normal or pathologic
  17. CONGESTION:
    blood stasis in the venules; due to
  18. HEMOSTASIS
    Basic ability of the body to maintain vessels and blood flow in the vessels
  19. Coagulation:
    Interaction between blood vessel wall, platelets and coagulation factors.
  20. 4 Steps to Hemostsis:
    • 1: Vasoconstriction
    • 2: Platelets gather at site
    • 3: Coagulation Factor
    • 4: Return to Normal
  21. What are the 2 Phases of coagualtion?
    Mechanical and Chemical
  22. Mechanical Phase
    Primary Hemostasis: Damage attacts platelets, attach to each other and endothelium to prevent more damage
  23. Chemical Phase:
    Secondary and Tertiary Hemostasis: Platelets Initiate, Coagulation Cascade
  24. What are the 3 Pathways of the Coagulation Cascade?
    Intrinsic, Extrinsic, and Common
  25. Intrinsic Pathway is AKA?
    Contact Activation Pathway
  26. Extrinsic Pathway is AKA?
    Tissue Factor Pathway
  27. Intrinsic Pathway:
    • -Stimulation by exposed collagen and/ or damage to vessel for platelets to adhere
    • -Factors 5,7,9,10, and11
  28. Extrinsic Pathway:
    • -Stimulated by non-vascular damage (releases fluids and chemicals)
    • -Factors 7 and 10
  29. Common Pathway:
    • -Goal: lots of Fibrinogen to fibrin
    • -Intrinsic and Extrinsic Pathway come together at Foactor 10
    • -Now activated Thrombin is a major coagulant
    • Factor 5 and 8 together converts prothrombin to Thrombin
  30. Factor I:
    Fibrinogen
  31. Factor II:
    Prothrombin
  32. Facotr III:
    Tissue Thromboplastin
  33. Factor IV:
    Calcium
  34. Factor V:
    Proaccelerin
  35. Factor VIII:
    Antihemolytic Factor-
  36. Intrinsic Factors:
    • -XII activates XI
    • -XI activates IX w/ help of calcium
    • -IX (and VIII) activates X
    • -X (and V) convert Prothrombin to Thrombin
  37. Extrinsic Factors:
    • -Tissue Factor released binds with and activates VII
    • -Activated VII-TF catalyzed by C+++ activates X
    • -X (and V) convert Prothrombin to Thrombin
  38. PLATELETS
    • -PPSC->Myeloid Stem Cell-> Megakaryoblast-> Promegakaryocyte-> Megakaryocyte-> Platelets
    • -2-4 um
    • Inactive is smooth/ Active is irregular

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