general Knowledge

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eagleeye
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69674
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general Knowledge
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2011-03-07 18:23:15
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  1. Treatment fo Herpes Simplex
    • Topical Tx
    • Viroptic - Topical Trifluridine 1gtt q2h X 7 days untilled healed then possible QID x 7 days
    • Zirgan Topical Granciclovir gel .0.15% 1gtt 5 x/day-till resolution. Then TID x 7days
    • Systemic Tx
    • Zovirax- Acyclovir- 400mg 5x/day for 7-10 days
    • Valtrex - Valacylovir - 500 mg TID for 7-10 days
    • Famvir - Famciclovir - 250 mg TID for 7-10 days
    • HEDS II - Showed that oral acyclovir - ZOVIRAX DOSE BID X 1 YEAR REDUSED THE RATE OF OF RECURRENCE ON ANY FORM OF OCULAR HERPES IN THE FOLLOWING YEAR BY 41%
    • STEROID USE IN
    • A. DISCIFORM KERATITIS
    • B. OTHER STROMAL INFLAMATION
    • C. HERPETIC IRITIS
    • ASSUME DENDRITIC LESIONS REASONABLY HEALED
    • DNA virus
    • latent in the sensory gaglia
  2. Herpes Zoster Ophthalmics
    • Varicella Viris=Chicken Pox
    • 70% infected in the 1st division of the 5th cranial nerve
    • TX DOSING ORAL
    • Zovirax=Acyclovir 800mg 5x/day for 7-10days
    • Valtrex=Valacylovir 1000mg TID for 7-10 days
    • Famvir=Famciclobir 500mg TID for 7-10 days
    • Pesudodendrites, difusse staining
    • tends to follow a single nerve branch
    • see pts on alternate days untill inflamation subsides
    • start tx within 48hrs
  3. Most common in Utero Infections
    • TORCH
    • Toxoplasmosis (Cat)
    • Rubella
    • Cytomegalovirus (herpies type)
    • Herpes Virus
  4. Increase Plasma Homocysteine
    • Common in Pseudoexfoliative glaucoma
    • Higher risk of cardiovascular disease
  5. DSAEK
    Descemets' Stripping Automated Endothelial Keratoplasty
  6. DMEK
    Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty
  7. DSEK
    Descemet’s Stripping Endothelial Keratoplasty.
  8. Histoplasmosis
    Histoplasma Capsulatum Fungus (Birds, Bats)
  9. Uvea
    • 3 Vascularized layers
    • 1. Choroid
    • a. Outer most large vessels (Haller's layer)
    • b. Medial medium vessels (Sattler's layer)
    • c. Inner - nourishes the RPE and outerRetinal layers
  10. Bruch's Membrane
    between the basement membrane of the choriocapillaris and basement membrane of the RPE
  11. IRIS
    Muscle
    • 1. Sphincter-constriction-parasympathetic innervationm body at rest
    • 2. Dilator - sympathetic flight or fight
  12. 10 layers of Neurosensory Retina
    list outside next to choroid to inner next to vitreous
    • 1. Pigmented epithelium,
    • 2. Photoreceptors; bacillary layer (outer and inner segments of cone and rod photoreceptors)
    • 3. External (outer) limiting membrane
    • 4. Outer nuclear (cell bodies of cones and rods)
    • 5. Outer plexiform (cone and rod axons, horizontal cell dendrites, bipolar dendrites)
    • 6. Inner nuclear (nuclei of horizontal cells, bipolar cells, amacrine cells, and Müller cells)
    • 7. Inner plexiform (axons of bipolar cells and amacrine cells, dendrites of ganglion cells)
    • 8. Ganglion cells (nuclei of ganglion cells and displaced amacrine cells)
    • 9. Nerve fiber layer (axons from ganglion cells traversing the retina to leave the eye at the optic disc)
    • 10. Internal limiting membrane (separates the retina from the vitreous).
  13. Anti-VEGF
    2 types
    • Anti-Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)
    • 1. Bevacizumab (Avastin)
    • 2. Ranibizumab (Lucentis)
  14. Avastin
    • Generic name: Bevacizumab
    • Not approved for wet AMD
    • larger molecules
  15. Lucentis
    • Generic name: Ranibizumab
    • smaller molecules
  16. Best's Disease
    • Vitelliform Macular Dystrophy
    • is an autosomal dominant disorder, which classically presents in childhood with the striking appearance of a yellow or orange yolk like lesion in the macula
  17. IOP
    • highest pressure for all patients occured while they were sleeping
    • Likely due to elevation of episcleral venious pressure which causes a backup of the aqueous drainage system
    • Supine iopduring office hours is about the same as peak nocturnal IOP in glaucoma patients
  18. Herpes Zoster
    Shingles
  19. Horner's
    • Miosis of the affected pupil
    • Ptosis of upper lid
    • upside down ptosis of the lower lid
    • anhydrosis of the affected side-decrease sweating
    • heterochromia of the iris- Congenital -affected eye
    • decrease IOP affected side
    • a clinical syndrome caused by damage to the sympathetic nervous system
    • lack of sympathetic stimulation Paredrine Apraclondine 0.5% and Iopidine 1% can be used to stimulate the alpha 1 receptors which will cause the affected eye to dilate
  20. AION
    Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy
  21. A measurement
    = eyesize, reference to frame size. is the longest horzonital measurement from one end of the rim to the other
  22. Frame PD
    A measure + the bridge measure
  23. B measurement
    vertical height of the frame
  24. ED measure
    Longest diagonal measure
  25. Back Vertex Power


    Fv= F2 + F1 / 1-thickness / n (F)

    • Fv =vertex power
    • F1 = front suface power
    • F2 = back surface power
  26. Far Point
    x = 1/F

    • x =distance from cornea
    • F = power of correcting lens
  27. Simple Astigmatism
    Coumpound Astigmatism
    MIxed Astigmatism
    • example: +2.00-2.00x135
    • example: +4.00-2.00x135
    • example: +3.00-4.00x135
  28. With The Rule Astigmatism

    Against The Rule Astigmatism
    Axis of The Rx is 1800 + or - 300

    Axis of The Rx is 0900 + or - 300
  29. Prentice's Rule
    Amount Prism = cm ( F)
  30. Power in Oblique Meridian
    • F in power of meridian = Fs sphere power + Fc power of the cylinder (sin2 of the angle)
  31. If you put Pantoscopic tilt on a Minus lenes with

    axis 180
    Get induced minus cylinder
  32. Put Face Form on a Minus lens

    axis 090
    Get induced cylinder
  33. If you put Pantoscopic tilt on a plus lenes with

    axis 090
    Get induced minus cylinder
  34. Put Face Form on a Plus lens

    axis 180
    Get induced minus cylinder
  35. Duochrome Test
    RAM -GAP

    VA 20/30 OR BETTER
  36. Base cure of a Lens is where?
    • Sphere: is front of lens
    • Plus Cylinder: is the flatter of the front (toric) surface curves
    • Minus cylinder: is the front sphere curve, the back flatter curve is called the toric base curve. The other back curve is called the cross curve.
  37. The abberations of most concern in ophthalmic lenses
  38. Oblique astigmatism
    • Curvature of field
    • Distortion

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