N302 Chapter 1

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N302 Chapter 1
2011-02-28 20:34:45
N302 Chapter

N302 Chapter 1 : Theoretical Perspectives and Contemporary Issues
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  1. Theory
    represents a theorists thoughtful examination of a phenomenon, defined as a concrete situation, event, circumstance, or condition of interest. . In nursing, it is a well-defined view of professional nursing
  2. Florence Nightingale
    wrote "notes on nursing", insisted in the importance of creating a supportive environment to faciliatate the healing process.
  3. paradigm
    a worldview with global concepts underlying the theories and methodology of a particular acientific discipline
  4. What does nursing professional metaparadigm consist of?
    person, environment, health, and nursing
  5. person
    • defined as the recipent of nursing care :)
    • *must be considered as a functional whole with unique biopsychosocial and spiritual dimensions. This term can be more than the individual client-- family community, etc.
  6. environment
    internal and external context of the client in the health care situation. The nurse should consider the cultural, developmental, physical, and psychosocial conditions that influence the client's perception, behaviors, growth, and development
  7. health
    • derives from the word whole
    • Weil: "a dynamic and harmonious equilibrium of all elements an dforces making up and surrounding a human being"
    • WHO: "a positive concept emphasizing social and personal resources, as well as physical capacities"
  8. caring
    • the element that nurses most value about their practice
    • Basic characteristics are:
    • a. giving of self
    • b. involved presence
    • c. intuitive knowing and empathy
    • d. supporting the patient's integrity
    • e. professional competence
  9. What are the 4 patterns of knowing embeded in nursing practice?
    • empitical
    • personal
    • aesthetic
    • ethical
  10. empirical ways of knowing
    grounded in the science of nursing
  11. what are personal ways of knowing?
    treating clients as unique human beings because of the nurse's own peronal experience and awareness of his/her own humanness
  12. Aesthetic ways of knowing
    allow for creative applications in the relationship designed to connect with clients in a different and more meaningful way
  13. Ethical ways of knowing
    refers to the moral aspects of nursing. encompasses knowing what is right and wrong, attention to standards and codes in makign moral choices and taking responsibility for one's actions as well as demonstrating prodessional values in providing health care.
  14. Evidence-based practice
    "the conscientuous explicit and judicious use of current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patients" It is informed, collaborative, and patient-centered.
  15. Dr. Hildegard Paplau
    • 1st nurse theorist to describe the nurse-client relationship as the foundation of nursing.
    • Theory of interpersonal relationsihps
    • Six nursing roles:
    • stranger role
    • resource role
    • teaching role
    • counseling role
    • surrogate role
    • active leadership
  16. Peplau's orientation phase
    sets the stage for the rest of the relationship. Offers a systematic means for gathering assessment data from the client
  17. Peplau's working phase
    • 1. identification component: focuses on mutual clarification of ideas and expectations, setting of goals, and treatment planning to achieve identified goals.
    • 2. exploitation component: helps the client work toward treatment goals, resolve healthcare issues and learn new coping strategies
  18. Peplau's termination (resolution) phase
    nurse assists client to review progress towards goals, makes referrals, and brings closure to the therapeutic relationship
  19. transferrence
    Freud's idea in which the client projects irrationsl attitudes and feelings from the past into the present.
  20. Countertransferrence
    Frued's idea where it refers to unconscious attitudes or exaggerated feelings a nurse may develop toward a client. Negative or positive.
  21. ego defense mechanism
    • Freud's idea
    • unconscious methods a person uses to protect the self from experiencing anxiety.
  22. Carl Jung
    his work helps nurses exxamine the complex dimensions of a person; these include gender roles, acceptance of each individual just as they are, and out universal heritage as human beings.
  23. Harry Stack Sullivan
    showed that people learn their humanness from significant others in their environment. Having a corrective interpersonal experience in adulthood with a helping professional can help individuals frin the self-security they missed in childhood.
  24. I-thou relationship
    • developed by Martin Buber
    • in this kind of relationship, each individual responds to the other as a unique person in a mutually respectful manner. Mutual discovery.
  25. Carl Rogers
    • identified 3 helper characteristics essential to the development of client-centered relationship:
    • unconditional positive regard, empathetic understanding, and genuineness.
  26. Aaron Beck
    • Cognitive behavioral therapy model
    • approach based on teh premise that a person's thoughts are significant determinants of feelings and actions.
  27. Cognitive distortions
    Beck's theory

    These are automatic thoughts that appear spontaneously in response to a stressful situation; seem to be valid assessments; and cause a person to intrepret neutral situations in an exaggerated, personalized, negative way.
  28. Erik Erikson
    broadened Freud's model of psychosexual stages to include psychosocial development.
  29. Maslow's hierarchy of needs:
    • from highest to lowest:
    • Self-actualization
    • Self-esteem
    • Love and belonging
    • Safety and Security
    • Physiological needs
  30. What is self-actualization?
    humanity at its best. self actualized individuals take important personal stands on issues, saying no when it is appropriate, and fully committing themselves to personal goals that enrich their sense of self and contribute to the lives of others.
  31. Communication
    intepersonal activity involving the transmission of messages from a source to a receiver for the purpose of influencing the receiver's behavior.
  32. sender
    source of initiator of the message
  33. message
    consists of a verbal or nonverbal expression of thoughts or feelings transmitted from the sender to the receiver.
  34. receiver
    the receipient of the message.
  35. symmetrical role
    relationships are equal
  36. complementary role
    one person holding a higher position than the other in the communication process. (usually the nurse in a nurse-patient relationship)
  37. metcommunication
    nonverbal message about how the receiver should interpret the message.
  38. feedback
    verbal or nonverbal response the receiver gives to teh sender abou thte message.
  39. validation
    special form of feedback that provides verbal and nonverbal confirmation that both participants have the same basic understanding of the message and the feedback.
  40. Therapeutic communication
    a purposeful form of communication used in the helping relationship.
  41. Telehealth
    "the use of telecommunications and information technology to provide access to health assessment, diagnosis, intervention, consultation, supervision, education and information across distance"