Org Psyc Exam 3 pt 2

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Org Psyc Exam 3 pt 2
2011-03-22 01:43:27
Org Psyc Exam pt

Org Psyc Exam 3 pt 2
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  1. reporting relationships
    who must answer to whom.
  2. direct report
    people who are responsible for or give orders to those who are immediately below them.
  3. downward communication
    comm from supervisors to their subordinates.
  4. MUM effect
    reluctance to transmit bad news by either not relating it or by giving the task to someone else to relate it.
  5. upward communication
    • info from lower levels to higher levels in an org from subordinates to supervisors.
    • occurs much less frequently than downward comm.
  6. lateral comm.
    messages between different people at the same org level.
  7. strategic comm.
    presenting info about the company to broad external audiences like the press.
  8. informal comm. network
    pattern of informal connections b/t people. (six degrees of separation)
  9. old boys' network
    informal gender segregated networks in organizations among men
  10. snowball effect
    ex: voluntary turnover occurs as people leave the people in informal comm with them tend to leave.
  11. grapevine
    • pathways informal info travels on.
    • tends to become increasingly inaccurate as messages flow from person to person.
  12. pipe dreams
    • rumors that reflect people's wishes.
    • ex: bonuses will be larger this year
  13. bogie rumors
    • rumors based on people's fears and anxieties
    • likely to arise under conditions where people are uneasy about things.
    • ex: bulletin saying lots of people will be laid off, overblown from a handful; workers threaten to leave because it was overblown
  14. wedge drivers
    rumors with intent of damaging someone's reputation.
  15. home-stretchers
    • rumors in anticipation of something happening
    • telling a story to reduce the ambiguity in a situation/ telling a story about something before it happens
    • story about an impending merger than hasn't happened yet.
  16. jargon
    specialized language used by a particular group (acronyms)
  17. say-do matrix
    differentiating b/t consistensies and inconsistensies with respect to actions (do) and words (say).
  18. HURIER model
    • elements of listening
    • hearing, understanding, remembering, interpreting, evaluating, responding.
  19. overload
    when a part of a network becomes bogged down with more info than it can handle.
  20. gatekeepers
    people who control the flow of info to potentially overloaded units.
  21. queuing
    lining up incoming info so it can be managed in an orderly way.
  22. 360 degree feedback
    giving and receiving feedback b/t indivs at various org levels - upper, lateral, downward
  23. suggestion systems
    designed to help avoid problems by providing a mechanism employees can use to present own ideas to the company.
  24. corporate hotlines
    telephones lines staffed by corporate personnel ready to answer employees questions, listen to complaints, etc.
  25. brown bag meetings
    informal get togethers where people discuss what's going on in the company.
  26. skip-level meetings
    gatherings of employees with corporate superiors more than a level higher than themselves in the org.
  27. employee surveys
    questionnaires designed to assess how employees feel about their orgs.
  28. supportive comm.
    any comm that's accurate and honest and builds relationships instead of tearing them down.
  29. invalidating language
    lang that arouses negative feelings about one's self worth.
  30. validating language
    lang that makes people feel recognized and accepted for who they are.
  31. conjunctive statement
    statements that keep conversations going by connecting different speakers remarks.
  32. disjunctive statements
    statements disconnected from previous statements that tend to close conversations.
  33. decision making
    process of making choices from among several alternatives.
  34. analytical model of the decision making process
    formulation, consideration, implementation
  35. predecision
    decision about how to make a decision.
  36. decision support systems
    computer programs that give managers social science info to guide them in making a decision.
  37. programmed decisions
    • routine decisions, made by lower level personnel that rely on predetermined courses of action.
    • ex: when paper is out in the printer, replace it.
  38. nonprogrammed decisions
    ones for which there are no ready made solutions.
  39. strategic decisions
    certain types of non programmed decisions.
  40. top-down decision making
    subordinates collect info and give it to superiors who use it to make decisions.
  41. empowered decision making
    allows employees to make decisions required to do their jobs without first seeking approval from superiors.
  42. decision style
    manner in which an indiv approaches the decisions confronting them
  43. decision style model
    • classifies four major decisions styles.
    • directive, analytical, conceptual, behavioral
  44. indecisiveness
    degree to which people approach decisions eagerly or want to put them off.
  45. rational decisions
    ones that maximize attainment of goals.
  46. rational-economic model
    assumes that decisions are optimal in every way (given all and perfect info and use it to make perfect decisions)
  47. administrative model
    • recognizes that decision makers may bave limiated and imperfect views of problems confronting them.
    • more realistic than rational economic model.
  48. satisficing decisions
    those made by selecting the first minimally acceptable alternative as it becomes available.
  49. bounded rationality
    • major assumption of the administrative model
    • human limitations lead to making satisficing rather than optimal decisions.
  50. bounded discretion
    people limit their consideration of decision options to ones that fall within ethical and legal boundaries.
  51. image theory
    • theory of decision making
    • people will adopt a course of action that best fits their indiv principles.
  52. framing
    tendency for people to make different decisions based on how a problem is presented to them.
  53. risky choice framing effect
    people tend to avoid risk when theproblem is framed in positive terms; tend to seek risk when problem is framed in negative terms.
  54. attribute framing effect
    • tendency for people to avaluate a characteristic more positively when its presented in ositive terms instead of negative.
    • ex: beef is 75% lean rather than 25% fat
  55. goal framing effect
    people more strongly persuaded by the negatively framed info than by the positively framed info.
  56. heuristics
    simple rules of thumb that guide people through s complex array of decisions alternatives.
  57. availability heuristic
    tendency for people to base their judgment on info thats readily available to them even if it might not be accurate.
  58. representativeness heuristic
    tendency to perceive others in stereotypical ways if they appear to be typical reps of the stereotype.
  59. implicit favorite
    • the preferred alternative
    • (SMU out of all colleges, even though don't know other colleges)
  60. confirmation candidate
    a decision alternative considered for purposes of convincing oneself of the wisdom of picking the implicit favorite.
  61. hindsight bias
    tendency to distort the way you see things to conform to what you already know about the past.
  62. person sensitivity bias
    • when things are going poorly, nobody likes you
    • when things are going well, everyone's your friend.
  63. escalation of commitment phenomenon
    • tendency for people to continue to support unsuccessful courses of action because they've invest too much in them already.
    • e.g. keep putting money into a stock that diving because if it makes a come back you make up for the loss
  64. brainstorming
    technique to foster group productivity by encouraging expression of ideas in a noncritical way.
  65. hypervigilance
    frantically searching for quick solutions for problems going from one idea to another out of a a sense of despteration.
  66. unconflicted adherence
    sticking to the first idea that comes to mind without evaluating the consequences.
  67. unconflicted change
    very quick to change their minds and adopt the first new idea to come along.
  68. defensive avoidance
    decision makers fail to solve problems b/c they go out of their way to avoid working on the task at hand.
  69. creative decision making errors
    • hypervigilance
    • unconflicted adherence
    • unconflicted change
    • defensive avoidance
  70. Delphi technique
    • improving decisions by using the opinions of experts which are solicited by mail and compiled, solutions organized and resent to experts, experts mail back which solution they think is best
    • a decision voted on by experts
  71. nominal group technique
    each member writes down their solution to a problem and all others see it and vote on which is best, highest ranked solution is used.
  72. stepladder technique
    minimizes members not sharing their ideas by adding members to a group one at a time and requiring each to present their idea as they come in.
  73. group decision support systems
    computer based systems that combine comm, computer, and decision technologies to improve problem solving.
  74. obstacles to team success
    • unwillingness to cooperate
    • lack of managementsupport
    • managers reluctance to relinquish control
    • failure to cooperate b/t teams
  75. types of rumors
    • pipe dreams
    • bogie rumors
    • wedge drivers
    • home stretchers
  76. avoid problems of distortion and omission with...