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who must answer to whom.
people who are responsible for or give orders to those who are immediately below them.
comm from supervisors to their subordinates.
reluctance to transmit bad news by either not relating it or by giving the task to someone else to relate it.
- info from lower levels to higher levels in an org from subordinates to supervisors.
- occurs much less frequently than downward comm.
messages between different people at the same org level.
presenting info about the company to broad external audiences like the press.
informal comm. network
pattern of informal connections b/t people. (six degrees of separation)
old boys' network
informal gender segregated networks in organizations among men
ex: voluntary turnover occurs as people leave the people in informal comm with them tend to leave.
- pathways informal info travels on.
- tends to become increasingly inaccurate as messages flow from person to person.
- rumors that reflect people's wishes.
- ex: bonuses will be larger this year
- rumors based on people's fears and anxieties
- likely to arise under conditions where people are uneasy about things.
- ex: bulletin saying lots of people will be laid off, overblown from a handful; workers threaten to leave because it was overblown
rumors with intent of damaging someone's reputation.
- rumors in anticipation of something happening
- telling a story to reduce the ambiguity in a situation/ telling a story about something before it happens
- story about an impending merger than hasn't happened yet.
specialized language used by a particular group (acronyms)
differentiating b/t consistensies and inconsistensies with respect to actions (do) and words (say).
- elements of listening
- hearing, understanding, remembering, interpreting, evaluating, responding.
when a part of a network becomes bogged down with more info than it can handle.
people who control the flow of info to potentially overloaded units.
lining up incoming info so it can be managed in an orderly way.
360 degree feedback
giving and receiving feedback b/t indivs at various org levels - upper, lateral, downward
designed to help avoid problems by providing a mechanism employees can use to present own ideas to the company.
telephones lines staffed by corporate personnel ready to answer employees questions, listen to complaints, etc.
brown bag meetings
informal get togethers where people discuss what's going on in the company.
gatherings of employees with corporate superiors more than a level higher than themselves in the org.
questionnaires designed to assess how employees feel about their orgs.
any comm that's accurate and honest and builds relationships instead of tearing them down.
lang that arouses negative feelings about one's self worth.
lang that makes people feel recognized and accepted for who they are.
statements that keep conversations going by connecting different speakers remarks.
statements disconnected from previous statements that tend to close conversations.
process of making choices from among several alternatives.
analytical model of the decision making process
formulation, consideration, implementation
decision about how to make a decision.
decision support systems
computer programs that give managers social science info to guide them in making a decision.
- routine decisions, made by lower level personnel that rely on predetermined courses of action.
- ex: when paper is out in the printer, replace it.
ones for which there are no ready made solutions.
certain types of non programmed decisions.
top-down decision making
subordinates collect info and give it to superiors who use it to make decisions.
empowered decision making
allows employees to make decisions required to do their jobs without first seeking approval from superiors.
manner in which an indiv approaches the decisions confronting them
decision style model
- classifies four major decisions styles.
- directive, analytical, conceptual, behavioral
degree to which people approach decisions eagerly or want to put them off.
ones that maximize attainment of goals.
assumes that decisions are optimal in every way (given all and perfect info and use it to make perfect decisions)
- recognizes that decision makers may bave limiated and imperfect views of problems confronting them.
- more realistic than rational economic model.
those made by selecting the first minimally acceptable alternative as it becomes available.
- major assumption of the administrative model
- human limitations lead to making satisficing rather than optimal decisions.
people limit their consideration of decision options to ones that fall within ethical and legal boundaries.
- theory of decision making
- people will adopt a course of action that best fits their indiv principles.
tendency for people to make different decisions based on how a problem is presented to them.
risky choice framing effect
people tend to avoid risk when theproblem is framed in positive terms; tend to seek risk when problem is framed in negative terms.
attribute framing effect
- tendency for people to avaluate a characteristic more positively when its presented in ositive terms instead of negative.
- ex: beef is 75% lean rather than 25% fat
goal framing effect
people more strongly persuaded by the negatively framed info than by the positively framed info.
simple rules of thumb that guide people through s complex array of decisions alternatives.
tendency for people to base their judgment on info thats readily available to them even if it might not be accurate.
tendency to perceive others in stereotypical ways if they appear to be typical reps of the stereotype.
- the preferred alternative
- (SMU out of all colleges, even though don't know other colleges)
a decision alternative considered for purposes of convincing oneself of the wisdom of picking the implicit favorite.
tendency to distort the way you see things to conform to what you already know about the past.
person sensitivity bias
- when things are going poorly, nobody likes you
- when things are going well, everyone's your friend.
escalation of commitment phenomenon
- tendency for people to continue to support unsuccessful courses of action because they've invest too much in them already.
- e.g. keep putting money into a stock that diving because if it makes a come back you make up for the loss
technique to foster group productivity by encouraging expression of ideas in a noncritical way.
frantically searching for quick solutions for problems going from one idea to another out of a a sense of despteration.
sticking to the first idea that comes to mind without evaluating the consequences.
very quick to change their minds and adopt the first new idea to come along.
decision makers fail to solve problems b/c they go out of their way to avoid working on the task at hand.
creative decision making errors
- unconflicted adherence
- unconflicted change
- defensive avoidance
- improving decisions by using the opinions of experts which are solicited by mail and compiled, solutions organized and resent to experts, experts mail back which solution they think is best
- a decision voted on by experts
nominal group technique
each member writes down their solution to a problem and all others see it and vote on which is best, highest ranked solution is used.
minimizes members not sharing their ideas by adding members to a group one at a time and requiring each to present their idea as they come in.
group decision support systems
computer based systems that combine comm, computer, and decision technologies to improve problem solving.
obstacles to team success
- unwillingness to cooperate
- lack of managementsupport
- managers reluctance to relinquish control
- failure to cooperate b/t teams
types of rumors
- pipe dreams
- bogie rumors
- wedge drivers
- home stretchers
avoid problems of distortion and omission with...