dmcamacho

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Author:
dmcamacho
ID:
69715
Filename:
dmcamacho
Updated:
2011-02-28 22:52:04
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Oxygenation Chptr
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oxygenation
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  1. What is hypoxemia?
    Condition of inadequate levels of oxygen in the blood?
  2. What events can lead to hypoxemia?
    Hypovolemia, hypoventilation, and interruption of arterial flow can lead to hypoxemia
  3. Tachypnea, tachycardia, restlessness, pallor of the skin and mucous membranes, elevated blood pressure, symptoms of repiratory distress (use of accessories, nasal flaring, tracheal tugging, adventitious lung sound) are...
    early OR late signs of hypoxemia?
    Early
  4. Confusion and stupor, cyanosis of skin and mucous membranes, bradypnea, bradycardia, hypotension and cardiac dysrhythmias are...
    early OR late signs of hypoxemia?
    Late
  5. This is a low-flow oxygen delivery system that delivers oxygen concentatrations of 24-40% at a flow rate of 1 to 6 L/min...?
    Nasal Cannula
  6. This is a low-flow oxygen delivery system that delivers oxygen concentrations of 40-60% at a flow rate of 5-8 L/min?
    Simple face mask
  7. This is a low-flow oxygen delivery system that delivers oxygen concentrations of 60-75 at a flow rate of 6-11 L/min?
    Partial rebreather mask
  8. This is a low-flow oxygen delivery system that delivers oxygen concentrations of 80-95% at a flow rate of 10-15 L/min and prevents room air from entering the mask?
    Nonrebreather mask
  9. This is a high-flow oxygen delivery system that delivers oxygen concentrations of 80-95% at a flow rate of 10-15 L/min and best suited for clients with chronic lung disease?
    Venturi mask
  10. Define preload? What may cause preload to increase?
    Preload is the volume of blood left in the ventricle after diastolic pressure. You may see preload increase in hypervolemia or with regurgiation of cardiac valves
  11. Define afterload? What may cause afterload to increase?
    After load is the pressure the left ventricle must overcome to circulate blood. You may see afterload increase in hypertension or vasoconstriction. When afterload increases = CO increases
  12. List some S&Sx of right-sided heart failure?
    fatigue, peripheral venous pressure, ascites, enlarged liver & spleen, distended jugular veins, anorexia and complains of GI distress, swelling in hands & fingers, dependent edema
  13. When a person is experiencing right-sided heart failure what is occuring?
    Right-sided or right ventricular (RV) heart failure usually occurs as a result of left-sided failure. When the left ventricle fails, increased fluid pressure is, in effect, transferred back through the lungs, ultimately damaging the heart's right side. When the right side loses pumping power, blood backs up in the body's veins (systemic circulation). This usually causes swelling in the legs and ankles.
  14. List some S&Sx of left-sided heart failure?
    Nocturnal dyspnea, elevated pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, pulmonary congestion (cough, crackles, wheezes, blood tinged sputum, tachypnea), resltessness, confusion, orthopnea, tachycardia, exertional dyspnea, fatigue, cyanosis
  15. When a person is experiencing left-sided hear failure what is occuring?
    • In left-sided or left ventricular (LV) heart failure, the left side of the heart must work harder to pump the same amount of blood.
    • There are two types of left-sided heart failure. Drug treatments are different for the two types.

    Systolic failure: The left ventricle loses its ability to contract normally. The heart can't pump with enough force to push enough blood into circulation.

    Diastolic failure: The left ventricle loses its ability to relax normally (because the muscle has become stiff). The heart can't properly fill with blood during the resting period between each beat.
  16. Obstructed blood flow through the valves is called? For example...when ________ occurs in the emilunar valves (aortic and pulmonic) the adjacent ventricles have to work harder to move the ventricular blood volume beyond the obstructed valve?
    Obstructed blood flow through valves is called STENOSIS
  17. When something other than the SA node acts as the pacemaker of the heart (AV node), there is chaotic, irregular atrial activity resulting in an irregular ventricular response. This can be caused by aging, calcification of the SA node, or changes in myocardial blood supply and is called?

    1. A-fib
    2. V-fib
    3. Ventricular tachycardia
    4. Sinus tachycardia
    A-fib
  18. When there is uncoordinated electrical activity with blood flow not going anywhere; caused by sudden cardiac death, electrical shock, acute myocardial infarction, drowning or trauma...this is called?

    1. A-fib
    2. V-fib
    3. Ventricular tacycardia
    4. Sinus tachycardia
    V-fib
  19. When the rhythm of the hear is slightly irregular the blood flow is not going anywhere, and is caused by changes in the normal pacemaker of the heart such as decrease in blood flow, ischemia, or embolus...this is called?

    1. A-fib
    2. V-fib
    3. Ventricular tachycarida
    4. Sinus tachycardia
    Ventricular tachycardia
  20. When the rhythm of the heart is normal with increased beats/min (100-180 beats/min) and can be caused by pain, fever, pump failure, hyperthyroidism, and certain drugs...this is called?

    1. A-fib
    2. V-fib
    3. Ventricular tachycardia
    4. Sinus tachycardia
    Sinus tachycardia
  21. Name the two dysrhythmias that are "shockable"?
    • Ventricular tachycarida
    • V-fib

    Ventricle dysrhytmias/dysfunctions are shockable
  22. What is the difference between angian and myocardial infarction/
    Angina has a transient imbalance; pain comes/goes/comes/goes. There is an imbalance between oxygen supply and demand

    MI is sudden, occurs usually because of ischemia, pain lasts more than 30 minutes

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