Micro J210 Parasitology

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Micro J210 Parasitology
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2011-02-28 21:33:57
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Micro J210 Parasitology
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  1. What is a parasite?
    A person who received free meals in return for amusing or impudent conversation
  2. How are parasites classified?
    - By how they move, protoza or metazoa
  3. What is a metazoa?
    • -multiple cells
    • Examples: Helminths -worms (Tramatodes, Nematodes, Cestodes)
    • Arthropod Vectors (External)- Arachnids, insects
  4. What are protozoas?
    • -Single cell
    • Ciliats, Amoebae, Flagellates, Apicomplexans
  5. What are the routes of infection?
    • -Penetration of the eyes- Acanthamoeba
    • -Vector-borne-Tsetse fly, mosquito, arachnids
    • -Sexual contact-Entamoeba, giardia, trichomonas
    • -Inhalation-Acanthamoeba, Naegleria
    • -Fecal (oral, ingestion)-Ascaris, cryptosporidium, cyclospora, entamoeba, enterobius, giardia, taenia, toxoplasma
  6. What are amoebae?
    • -No defined shape-pseudopodia
    • -most are free-living
    • Examples: Acanthamoeba sps, Entamoeba histolytica
  7. What is entamoeba histolytica?
    • -Amoebae
    • -Globally
    • -Human carrier only
    • Transmission: Ingestion, sexual
    • 1. Luminal Amebiasis (Most asymptomatic)
    • -dysentery (painful bloodly diarrhea), mucus, no fever or vomiting, teardrop ulcer in the colon.
    • 2. Invasive Extraintestinal Amebiasis: Necrotic lesions at site, liver abscesses
  8. What is naegleria fowleri?
    • -Free living not obligate parasite
    • -Direct infection through the nostrils
    • -Inhalation: swimmers
    • -Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis (PAM), changes taste/smell, vominting, nausea, fever, headache, rapid onset of coma, and death in two weeks.
  9. What are flagellates?
    • -locomote by single long flagellum
    • Examples: Trypanosoma, Giardia, adn Trichomonas
  10. Wat is Trypanosoma Brucei?
    • -Cattle and wild animal resovoirs
    • -Vector Borne: Tsetse Fly
    • -African sleeping sickness, necrotic lesion, fever (every 7-10 days), swollen lymph node, meningoencephalitis, headache, extreme drowsiness, coma, and death
    • -Very toxic treatment
  11. What is Trypanosoma Cruzi?
    • -chaga's disease
    • Swelling at bite, feverl, swollen lymph nodes, CHF
    • Vector: Kissing Bug Feces
  12. What is Giardia intestinalis/lamblia?
    • -Giardiasis (Diarrhea) Bever fever
    • -pale loose, foul smelling fatty stools, fatulence, weight loss, ab pain, predisposition in immunosuppressed, homosexuals, sewage workers
    • -Distrubution is untreated water
  13. What is Trichomonas vaginalis?
    • -Most common protozoan disease, 3 billion at risk
    • -Dwells in vulvas, vaginas, urethras and prostates of humans only
    • -Mosty asymptomatic in men
    • -Vaginitis in some women: odorous discharge, ab pain, dyspareunia, dysuria
  14. What is Leishmania sps?
    • -Vector: female sandfuly
    • -Animal Host
    • -Infect and destroy macrophages
    • -Cutaneous problems- like boils, painful skin sores
  15. What are apicomplexas?
    • -Used to be called sporoza
    • -Complicated life cycles with at least two different hosts
    • -Examples: Plasmodium, toxoplasma
  16. What is the plasmodium sps?
    • -Vector borne: female anophelse sps mosquite
    • 4 Species: P. Falciparum, vivax, ovale, malariae
    • -Over 400 million infection
    • 3 stages:
    • -Liver: Vivax and Ovale remain dorman here for years, recurring
    • -Blood Cycle: feed on RBC, fever on cell rupture
    • -Mosquito cycle: ingest sexually active form from RBC, which mature in the gut
    • Symptoms: Recurrent fever, chills, diarrhea, headache, hemolytic anermia, jaundice
  17. What is P.falciparum?
    • -Worst type of malaria
    • Black water fever: extreme cell lysis, dark urine and kidney failure
    • Cerebral malaria: hemorrhage in teh brain from inelastic RBC
  18. What are protective conditions of malaria?
    • Sickle cell trait- sickling RBC resist penetration
    • Hemoglobin C- mishapen RBC resist penetration
    • -Glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase deficieny-needed for parasite DNA synthese
    • -Lack of duffy antigens- resistance to P. vivax
  19. What is toxoplasma gondii?
    • -About 40% of US population is exposed
    • -Animal host-cat
    • -Fecal-oral transmission, inhalation
    • -Selfl limiting except in fetus and AIDS patients
    • -Asympathetic, spastic paralysis, blindness, brain infection
  20. What are intermediate hosts and definitive host?
    • Intermediate: Larval/ immature form
    • Definitive: adult forms, large # of eggs
  21. What is W.bancrofti?
    • -Vector borne-transmitted by female mosquitoes
    • -Infests sub Q tissue and lymphatics causing filariasis
    • -Can result in elephantiasis,which is not reversible
    • -Secondary bacterial infections
  22. What is Ascaris lumbricodies?
    • -Most common ringworm
    • Largest nematode
    • -Fecal oral route: egg, intestine, larvae, lung, larvae 2, intestine, adult
    • -Fever, dry cough, ab pain, obstruction, eosinophilia, nausea, vomiting, asthma, worm emigrations,no diarrhea
  23. What is enterobius vermicularis?
    • -Pinworm
    • Worldwide, most common worm in US
    • -Itchy bottom, tape test
    • Fecal oral colon: nocturnal laying of eggs
  24. What are cestodes?
    • -Tapeworms
    • -Flat, segmented, ong intestingal parasites
    • -Scolex for attachment, cuticle
    • -Multiple hosts, humans are definitive host
    • -Fecal oral transmisison
    • Taenia saginate: beef tapeworm
    • Taenia Solium: pork tapeworm
    • Asymptomatic, nausea, ab pain, diarrhea, blockage, neurolgocial and ocualr symptoms by T. solium larvae

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