1) Cog Neuro

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1) Cog Neuro
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2011-03-01 16:02:59
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  1. behavioral neurology
    emphasis on linking different regions of the brain with different behaviors and cognition; function and pathology of the nervous system; neurologists work in the clinical setting
  2. neuroscience
    study of the structure and function of all aspects of the nervous system; mechanisms of the nervous system…includes neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, and neurochemistry
  3. cognitive psychology
    the study of mental activity as an information-processing problem; how information is processed when we perform a complex task; successful in determining obstacles of a system; can be proposed without considering biological issues
  4. Baddeley & Hitch Model
    has two storage buffers: the phonological loop (for acoustic rehearsal code) and the visuospatial sketchpad (visual or spatial code); both controlled by the central executive
  5. cognitive neuroscience
    is an interdisciplinary effort to relate mental processes to brain structures; Interaction is bidirectional; the goal being to characterize how various cognitive processes are implemented in the brain
  6. cognitive neuroscience is the integration of 4 disciplines:
    neurology, neuroscience, cognitive psychology and computer science/artificial intelligence
  7. Golgi
    developed a silver stain that allowed individual neurons to be seen
  8. syncytium
    Golgi thought the brain was a continuous mass of tissue with a common cytoplasm
  9. Santiago Ramon y Cajal
    came up with the Neuron Doctrine: used Golgi’s stain to show that the brain was made up of individual nerve cells linked together by long extensions
  10. Neuron Doctrine
    the belief that brain funcitons are carried out through the synchronized activity of independent neurons
  11. Neuron Doctrine Principles (6):
    1) connectional specificity: the neuron is the anatomical unit: is an independent unit/individual cell

    2)dynamic polarization: inferred that information entered at one point and exited at another; was a direction/flow of information in the cell

    3) neuron is a developmental/embryological unit: during development, the axon grows out of the cell body; it was an evolving unit

    4) neuron is a metabolic unit: came from studies in which different parts of neurons were cut and parts of the cell died and parts lived; the axon WILL NOT regenerate after damage

    • 5) if you kill one cell another doesn’t
    • necessarily die

    • 6) neuron is the basic information
    • processing unit; it’s possible for one neuron to do simple computing
  12. neuron composed of:
    • 1) soma-cell body
    • 2) axon-transmitting process
    • 3) dendrite-receiving process
    • 4) synapse-gap between neurons where transmission takes place
  13. In vertebrates, neurons receive inputs from ________ and pass information down the ___ towards the _______________
    • dendrites
    • axon
    • nerve terminals
  14. Nissl stain
    stains the rough ER revealing the distribution of cell bodies (somata)
  15. HRP (horseradish peroxidase) filled neuron
    a retrograde tracer; taken up by axons and transported back to the cell bodies; used to visualize where the input to a particular neural region originates
  16. Glial cells
    structural/metabolic support; myelination of axons; remove debris following injury or cell death; clean-up of extracellular ions and neurotransmitters; guide the migration of neurons during development; makes up selectively permeable blood brain barrier (form tight junctions with endothelial cells that line capillaries and venules)
  17. electrical impulses carry signals ______ a neuron; chemical transmitters carry signals ______ neurons
    within; between
  18. Neuromodulators
    modulate activity in large regions rather than strictly exciting/inhibiting specific postsynaptic neurons; originate from the cell bodies in the midbrain; ex: Dopamine (DA, created in the ventral tegmental area), norepinephrine (NE, created in the locus coeruleus), serotonin (5-HT)
  19. neurotransmitters
    synthesized in cell body OR synaptic terminals; released from synaptic vesicles by presynaptic neuron --- bind to receptors on postsynaptic neuron
  20. examples of excitatory NT's
    glutamate (Glu) and acetylcholine (Ach)
  21. examples of inhibitory NT's
    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glycine (Gly)
  22. Acetylcholine
    facilitates learning and memory; affected in Alzheimer’s Disease
  23. Norepinephrine
    enhances vigilance & preparation for action
  24. Dopamine (DA)
    facilitates movement, reinforces behaviors, helps keep information in short-term (working) memory; affected in Parkinson’s Disease (low levels) and schizophrenia (high levels)
  25. Serotonin
    inhibits some behaviors; lots of other effects; affected in Depression
  26. central sulcus
    boundary of motor and somatosensory cortices AS WELL AS the seperator between the frontal and parietal lobes
  27. longitudinal fissure
    seperates the left and right cerebral hemishperes; runs from rostral to caudal end of the forebrain
  28. cerebral cortex
    the brain's outer "bark" layer; the gray matter
  29. sylvian (lateral) fissure
    separates temporal lobe from parietal and frontal lobes insula is buried within it
  30. limbic system
    corpus callosum, cingulate gyrus, thalamus, olfactory bulb, amygdala, hippocampus
  31. Gyrus
    a ridge/outside fold on the cerebral cortex; very top is called the conveitus
  32. Line of Gennari
    a band of myelinated axons projecting into layer 4B of the primary visual cortex from layer 4Cα; it is visible to the naked eye, and is coterminous with area V1
  33. sulcus
    not visible on the outside, the folds inside; the very bottom is called the fundus
  34. Brodmann's Map
  35. cytoarchitectonics
    how cells differ between brain regions
  36. whenever there’s a __________ difference in the brain, there’s almost always a __________ difference
    structural; functional
  37. aggregate field theory
    the notion that the whole brain participated in a behavior; Flourens
  38. electronic conduction
    current that is passively conducted throughout the neuron
  39. depolarizations
    male the inside of the cell more positive and more likely to generate an action potential; called excitatory postsynaptic potentials
  40. hyperpolarizations
    make the inside of the cell less positive and less likely to generate an action potential; called inhibitory postsynaptic potentials
  41. decremental conduction
    diminished amplitude of the current at more distant loci
  42. gray matter
    forms a continuous cortical sheathl contains cell bodies of neurons and glial cells
  43. white matter
    fatty myelin surrounding the axons
  44. tracts
    bundles of axons
  45. corticocortical connections
    neighboring and distant connections between two cortical regions
  46. anterograde tracers
    absorbed at the dendrites or s ome and then diffuse along the axons (ex: radioactively labeled amino acids)
  47. central nervous system
    brain and spinal cord
  48. peripheral nervous system
    eveything outside the CNS; delivers sensory information to the CNS and carries the motor commands of the CNS to the muscles
  49. commissure
    white matter tracts that cross from the left to the right side of the CNS
  50. neocortex
    the portion of the cortex that contains 6 man cortical layers and has a high degree of specialization of neuronal organization; composed of areas such as primary sensory and motor cortex; most evolved type of cortex
  51. association cortex
    the portion of the neocortex that is neither sensory nor motor
  52. basal ganglia
    controls movement; collection of subcortical neuronal groups in the forebreain beneath the anterior portion of the lateral ventricles; 3 subdivisions are the globus pallidus, caudate and putamen
  53. neostriatum
    the caudate and putamen combined
  54. diencephalon
    thalamus and hypothalamus
  55. brainstem
    consists of midbrain, pons and medulla

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