Digestive System

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Digestive System
2011-02-28 22:14:25
elo266 Digestive system

Pharm 505
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  1. What are the 2 types of nausea and what causes them?
    Central Nausea: Major trigger inside of the brain outside of the blood-brain-barrier (BBB) the CTZ zone is detected and senses things that are inside of our body that are not supposed to be, and will cause the body to want to eliminate that thing

    Local Nausea: Other nausea is related to distention in the stomach
  2. What is the process of vomiting and what is it coordinated by?
    Coordinated by the somatic nervous system

    • 1) Diaphragm descends
    • 2) Abdominal muscles contract
    • 3) Gastric cardia open
  3. Vomiting Center (VC) vs. Chemoreceptor Trigger Zone (CTZ)
    VC: located in the medulla; coordinate the respiratory, GI, and abdominal muscles; the common pathway that mediates comiting from all causes

    CTZ: accessible to blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF); helps to induce vomiting
  4. What neurotransmitters are involved in the CTZ associated with N & W
    • Dopamine,
    • Opiate
    • Serotonin
    • Acetylcholine
    • Histamine
  5. Signs associated with N & V that are serious and require more intervention
    • Blood in vomitus
    • Abdominal pain/distension
    • Fever
    • Severe headable
    • Recent trauma
    • Diabetes
  6. What is the function of CCK?
    stimulates the gall bladder
  7. What is function of gastrin?
    Stimulates secretion of gastric acid adn pepsinogen, increases GI blood flow
  8. What is function of Ghrelin?
    Stimulates hunger

    (may be useful in weight loss/obesity treatment by helping people to stop feeling hungry)
  9. What is the function of GLP-1?
    Supresses glucagon, slows gastric emptying
  10. What is the function of GIP?
    augments insulin release
  11. What is the function of secretin?
    Stimulates the production of bicarbonate in the stomach
  12. What do parietal cells secrete?
    HCL and intrinsic factor
  13. What is the function of intrinsic factor?
    To absorb vitamin B12 in the GI tract and prevent anemia
  14. What do the chief cells secrete?
  15. What are the 3 types of parietal cell receptors?


  16. Large volume vs. small volume diarrhea
    Large volume: viral or bacterial infection; can cause K+ loss and acidosis

    Small volume: frequent loss of small amounts of stool; characteristic of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease
  17. What is the total amount of fluid secreted from the GI tract in a day?
    7,100 mL
  18. What is the best indicator of fluid status?
    Body weight
  19. What are the major risk factors for geting constipation?
    • Age
    • Menopause
    • Enlarged prostate
  20. What is GERD, what are the major symptoms, and what are the causes?
    GERD= backflow of GI contents into the esophagus because of a weakened cardiac spincter

    Symptoms= heartburn, regurgitation

    Causes= high-fat diet, pregnancy, obesity, congenital defects
  21. What is gastritis, what causes it, and what do you use to treat it
    Gastritis- the inflammation of the stomach that happens when anything disrupts the stomach's protective mucus lining

    • Causes by:
    • H. pylori (acute)
    • Degeneration of the stomach wall, pernicious anemia (chronic)

    You use flagle to treat acute gastritis
  22. What is a peptic ulcer, what is it caused by, and how is it diagnosed?
    Peptic ulcer= erosion of the mucosal layer in the GI tract

    Caused by H. pylori, decreased mucus production (from excessive use of NSAIDs/aspirin), increased acid production (caffiene, alchohol, and nicotine)

    Diagnosed by gastroscopy, endoscopy, blood test, occult blood
  23. What are the symptoms of peptic ulcers?
    Pain in stomach

    Pain immediately after eating

    Weight loss/gain


    Melana (blood in the stool)

    Dyspepsia (heart burn)
  24. Signs of GI bleeding

    hematochezia (blood in rectum)


    occult bleeding
  25. What is peritonitis, what causes it, and what are the symptoms/treatments?
    Peritonitis= inflammation of the peritineum

    Causes= perforation of the gut of orgon into perineal space

    Symptoms: pain, n/v, rigid abdomen, tachycardia, fever, increased WBC

    Treatment: antibiotics, shock prevention (fluids, dopamine, etc)

    *high risk for septicimia and septic shock*
  26. Intestinal obstruction: causes, signs/symptoms, what will happen if left untreated
    Causes= tumors, adhesions, volvulus (where bowel is tied in a knot), intussuception (bowel tunnels into another), severe constipation

    Signs: pain, distention, n/v, anorexia, diarrhea, reduced/abscent BS, abdom tenderness, fever
  27. What is an ileus, what causes it, and what are the symptoms?
    Ileus: paralysis of the bowel; usually happens post-op

    Causes: abdom surgery, reduction of blood supply to abdomen, kidney/heart disease, medications

    Symptoms: abdom cramping/distention, N/V, failure to pass gas/stool
  28. Crohn's disease vs. ulcerative colitis
    Crohn's has patchy inflammation over all of the GI tract, diarrhea w/o blood, malabsorption, LRQ pain

    Colitis: bloody diarrhea mixed with mucus, fever, weight loss, LLQ pain, n/v
  29. Gallbladder disease: symptoms
    Symptoms= jaundice, visceral pain, clay colored stool, steatorrhea (fatty stool)
  30. Pancreatitis: symptoms, treatment
    Symptoms= RUQ pain, vomiting, tender abdomen, high amylase/lipase

    Treatment= supportive care only
  31. Portal hypertenion: definition, complications, symptoms
    Portak hypertension: increase in portal vein pressure due to obstructed blood flow

    Leads to development of collateral veins, substances that are normally filtered by the liver may bypass and circulate in the blood

    manifestations: eopshageal varicies, hemorrhoids, enlarged veins, ascites