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La serva padrona, excerpts
- 1733IntermezzoRecit between Uberto and Serpina, then Accomp. recit by Uberto, then aria by uberto with string ritornello in between
- recit = speechlike rhythms
- aria= very fast notes! "rapid patter", moves to slower melody
- aria = da capo form
- A and B sections present many contrasting moods
- breaks in melody remind of uncertainty
- NAWM 101
- ●By Giovanni Battista Pergolesi (1710–1736)
- ●There are only three characters, one of whom is mute.
- ●The plot questions the social hierarchy.
- ●Recitative section
- ●The opening conversation is set in the standard simple recitative.
- ●As Uberto doubts his actions with Serpina,
- the orchestra punctuates his thoughts.
- ●The harmonies modulate rapidly, suggesting Uberto’s
- changing thoughts.
- ●Da capo form
- ●Ritornello frames the A section.
- ●The A section has two complete statements of poetic text.
- ●The B section has new text, keys, and musical ideas.
- ●The music projects contrasting moods, unlike Baroque arias.
Cleofide, excerpts Act I, No. 10
- Opera Seria
- ●Cleofide was composed for Hasse’s wife, Faustina Bordoni, a professional singer.
- ●The da capo aria has contrasting ideas and short phrases.
- ●In the A section, the first vocal statement modulates to the dominant, and the second modulates back to the tonic, E major.
- ●The B section changes to E minor and has a faster triple meter.
- Very gentle string section
- NAWM 102
The Beggar's Opera, excerpt from scene 13
- Ballad Opera1728
- IN ENGLISH
- STARTS WITH WORDS!
- ●In this scene, Macheath is fleeing from the law and hiding in Polly’s room.
- ●My heart was so free/It roved like a bee is sung by Macheath.
- ●The song parodies the simile aria of Baroque operas (a predicament is described through comparison).
- ●The words are sung to the melody of Come fair one be kind, a courting song.
- ●The tune has a jig character and is in binary form.
- NAWM 103
Orfeo ed Euridice, excerpt from Act II, scene 1
- Very intense horn intro
- Chromatic motion, clearly intense
- •The poet Raniero de Calzabigi supplied the libretto.
- •As with Alceste, in Orfeo Gluck molds the music to the drama.
- •Two orchestras are used, one of which is for plucked strings imitating the sound of Orfeo’s lyre.
- •Dissonances and diminished chords create the sense of terror.
- •The ballet of the Furies
- •The dance quickly modulates to C minor through chromaticism.
- •The dance is central to the story.
- •Orfeo’s song to the Furies
- •Simple melody, sparse embellishment, and economy of material
- •The melody has simple phrases.
- •The Furies periodically respond with “No.”
- NAWM 104
Creation from The Continent Harmony
- Fuging tune1794
- In English
- •This is a fuguing tune from The Continental Harmony.
- •The first half of the piece is homophonic and syllabic.
- •The second half, the fuging portion, is imitative.
- •Homophony returns at the end.
- •The principal melody is in the tenor line.
- •Parallel fifths and octaves suggest Billings’s lack of training.
- NAWM 105
Sonata in D Major, K. 119
- Domenico Scarlatti
- Keyboard Sonata1740s
- one-movement sonata
- balanced binary form both halves end with same material
- first section - many ideas, immediately repeated
- harmonically stable
- second section moves thru d min and a min, cad on e min, then circle of fifths back to tonic
- large leaps, rushing scales, rapid arpeggios, create brilliant effect
- "castinet like" rhythms
- •After the opening tonic, a new phrase imitates the sound of castanets.
- •A new theme in the minor dominant follows the modulation.
- •Scarlatti builds to a climax with trills and growing dissonance that includes chords of five and six notes.
- •The total effect suggests the sound of a Spanish guitar.
- •Other typical features include wide leaps and hand-crossing
- NAWM 106
Sonata in A major - second movement, poco adagio
- C. P. E. Bach
- Keyboard Sonata1765
- Lots of notated ornaments for expression purposes
- recit stylefourth out of six published sonatas
- written for amateurs
- empfindsam (sentimental) style
- ornamentation serves as a means of expression
- •From Sechs Clavier-Sonaten für Kenner und Liebhaber (composed 1765, published 1779)
- •The movement features an expressive melody in short phrases.
- •The form is a type of binary form that can be described as sonata form without development.
- •Bach also exploits the element of surprise with unexpected turns.
- •Passages in dialogue or recitative style add to the emotionality.
- NAWM 107
Symphony in F Major, No. 32, first movement, Presto
- Starts with the three quarter notes in each part
- Distinctive first idea, typical of that time period•The symphony is scored for four-part strings and probably harpsichord.
- •It has three movements (fast–slow–fast), each of which is relatively short.
- •In the first movement, each half is repeated, and the material heard in the dominant in the first half is repeated in the tonic in the second half.
- NAWM 108
Sinfonia a 8 in E-flat major, Op. 11, No. 3, first movement
- SymphonyMid 1750s
- militant rhythms, horn rhythms, associated with hunting
- MANNHEIM CRESC.•The work was published in La melodia germanica (1758), a collection of symphonies by several composers.
- •The work is scored for strings and two oboes and two horns
- •The transition exploits the famous Mannheim crescendo.
- •The move to the dominant is highlighted by a lyric and graceful new melody.
- Following the development, the recapitulation begins with the second theme
- Sonata Form-ish, FIrst theme, Transition, Second Theme, Closing Theme
- NAWM 109
Symphony No. 92 in G Major
- Symphony1789•the work derives its name from a 1791 performance at Oxford.•The first movement is in a sonata form.
- •The slow introduction makes the following allegro sound energetic.
- •The first theme group contains three distinct ideas.
- •Haydnbegins the second thematic group with the opening idea and a countermelody in the winds.
- -The closing subject is repetitive and cadential •Development
- •Modulates through several related keys
- •The section features sequences, counterpoint, and motivic development.
- •Haydn playfully begins the recapitulation with the theme in the flute and with new counterpoint
- .•In the recapitulation, the second and closing themes appear in the tonic, and the transition is extended and intensified.Known as the Oxford Symphony
- presented it at Oxford University
- 4 movements
- fast sonata form, slow mvt, minuet, fast finale
- First mvt = starts w/ slow intro
- = turns from maj to chromaticism
- = P contains 3 sections, quiet dominant scalar fig, sudden loud figue on tonicwith leap up to dotted quarter and sixteenth note tumble down, repetetive cadential phrase
- Slow mvt = ABA' form
- -period of calm
- - A sec = rounded binary
- Minuet and trio = ABA form overall
- Final mvt = sonata form
- harpsichord for basso continuo
- NEED TRACKS 63-78
- NAWM 112
String Quartet in E-flat major, Op. 33, No. 2 - fourth movement
- String Quartet1781 Composed for sale
- ABACA form
- effective rondo refrain
- "The Joke"
- Humor found throughout mvmnt
- •The rondo form is an ABACA form.
- •The binary opening theme has a playful, unfinished character.
- •The two episodes do not introduce new material.
- •Haydn heightens drama with extensions and delay.
- •The exaggerated drama is humorous, creating a witty effect.
- •Haydn’s wit is especially endearing to players and connoisseurs, but also appeals to inexperienced listeners.
- NAWM 111
The Creation, Part 1: No. 1, Introduction and No. 2, "In the beginning..."
- •Haydn’s Depiction of Chaos at the beginning of The Creation is remarkable for its harmonies and drama.
- •The opening unison C is associated with the void before the Creation.
- •The image of Chaos is created through a number of effects:
- •vague and fragmentary themes
- •unexpected wind scales and arpeggios
- •ambiguous harmonies
- •progressions that resolve in unexpected ways
- •In the oratorio, soloists depict angels and other biblical characters, including Adam and Eve.
- •After the orchestral introduction,the angel Raphael announces the Creation.
- •When Raphael mentions that the Earth was “without form” the music of the opening is referenced by a turn to E-flat minor
- •A chorus enters quietly narrating the next moments.
- •The word light is set with great drama.
The Creation, Part 2: No. 20 and 21, "Let earth bring forth the living creature..."
- •In these recitatives, the angel Raphael describe the appearance of animals on the Earth.
- •No. 20 is a secco recitative.f
- •No. 21 is an accompanied recitative that uses text painting to convey the image of the animals mentioned.
- •The general pattern is for Haydn to provide the orchestral picture of each animal before the singer’s words provide the clue.