25 cardiovascular drugs

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Author:
carolyn
ID:
69800
Filename:
25 cardiovascular drugs
Updated:
2011-03-06 07:48:55
Tags:
pharmacology
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Description:
25 heart drugs
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  1. medications that affect the heart and blood vessels as well as anticoagulant and antiplatelet agents
    cardiovascular drugs
  2. drug used to treat cardiac arythmias, hypertension, and angina
    propranolol
  3. occur widely in nature or can be prepared synthetically
    cardiac glycosides
  4. glycosides that act directly on the myocardium to increase the force of myocardial contractions
    cardiac glycosides
  5. this is used primarily in heart failure
    cardiac glycosides
  6. fatigue, weakness, dyspnea, cyanosis, increased heart rate, cough, and pitting edema are all symptoms of ________
    heart failure
  7. which neurotransmitter does digoxin lower
    norepinephrine
  8. digoxin routes of administration
    orally or parenterally
  9. the most commonly used cardiac glycoside
    digoxin (lanoxin)
  10. the process of establishing the correct therapeutic dose of digoxin for maintaining optimal functioning of the heart without toxic effects
    digitalization
  11. if the pulse rate is less than _____ digoxin may need to be withheld
    60
  12. ______ pulse must be assessed before administering digoxin
    apical
  13. the imbalance of this electrolyte is a toxic side effect for digoxin
    potassium
  14. what could hyperkalemia or hypokalemia cause
    arrythmias
  15. what are some toxic side effects for digoxin
    • vertigo
    • diplopia
    • cardiac arythmias
    • electrolyte imbalance
    • insomnia
    • mental disorders
    • headache
    • fatigue
    • lethargy
  16. double vision (halos)
    diplopia
  17. true or false

    abrupt withdrawal from digoxin should be avoided
    true

    med must be gradually reduced
  18. drugs that suppress various types of cardiac arrythmias including atrial ventricular tachycardias.
    antiarrythmic agents
  19. what is a vital role for health care practitioners when administering medication
    accurate and timely reporting of vital signs
  20. signs of hypotension or bradychardia could lead to ________?
    cardiac arrest
  21. what are two ways to detect arrythmia
    ekg strip or 24 hour holter monitor
  22. _______ restores normal sinus rhythm in PSVT by slowing conduction time through the AV.
    adenosine
  23. adenosine is likly to cause _______
    hypotension
  24. an injectible antiarrythmic agent with multiple electrophysiologic activities
    adenosine
  25. adenosine common side effects are:
    facial flushing, lightheadedness, dyspnea, chest pressure
  26. a class III oral and injectable antiarrythmc
    amiodarone
  27. despite its problematic organ toxicity and black box warning this drug is widely used for preventing the recurrence of atrial fibrillation
    amiodarone
  28. amiodarone side effects
    • arythmias
    • hyper/hypothyroidism
    • neurotoxicity
    • nueritis
    • photosensitivity
  29. the contraindications is for what drug:

    2nd or 3rd heart block
    sinus bradycardia
    syncope
    thyroid disease
    older adults
    amiodarone
  30. where are beta 1 receptors found
    heart
  31. where are beta 2 receptors found
    lungs
  32. class IV antiarythmic agents
    calcium channel blockers
  33. verapamil (calan) and diltiazem (cardizem) are examples of _____ ______ _____
    calcium channel blockers
  34. A class IB antiarythmic agent
    lidocaine
  35. local anesthetic administered for its antiarythmic effect and membrane stabilizing action
    lidocaine
  36. this used to be the first line of defense, but is now the second
    lidocaine
  37. lidocaine contraindications
    • pregnancy, lactation, children
    • heart block
    • respiratory depression
    • hypersensitivity to local anesthetics
  38. if medication is forgotten what is not recommended
    double dosing
  39. procainamide, quinidine, and dysopyramide fall under what class of antiarythmics
    class IA
  40. propafenone is what class of antiarythmic
    class IC
  41. unusal taste, constipation, blurred vision, angina, heart failure, palapations, fatigue headache, dyspnea, rash and weakness are side effects for _______
    propafenone
  42. a wide spread epidemic that has affected millions of adults worldwide
    hypertension
  43. blood pressure has a strong consistent risk relationship with
    cardiovascular disease
  44. what is the purpose of a prehypertension range?
    to encourage patients to initiate a healthier lifestyle
  45. DASH diet includes
    • sodium reduction
    • increased physical activity
    • modified alcohol use
    • smoking cessation
  46. these are side effects for

    hypotension
    bradychardia
    antihypertensives
  47. calcium channel blockers are most effective in treating what types of patients
    • african americans
    • older patients
    • patients with high BP readings
  48. _______ calcium channel blockers should never be used to manage hypertension because of reports of increased risks of myocardial infarction and mortality
    short acting
  49. example of ACE inhibitor drugs
    • captopril
    • enalapril

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