Micro Chp 15-21

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Author:
coronagirl415
ID:
69864
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Micro Chp 15-21
Updated:
2011-03-01 12:01:31
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Immunity
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Specific and Non-specific
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  1. innate
    nonspecific
  2. acquired
    specific
  3. first line defense
    • 1. mechanical factors
    • 2. chemical factors
    • 3. normal flora
  4. mechanical factors
    • - skin- keratin
    • - mucuous membrane- ciliary escalator
    • - glands
    • - hair
  5. chemical factors
    • - skin secrete sebum- pH 3-5
    • - gastric juice- pH 1-3
    • - lysozomes and peroxidase
    • - transfeerins in blood compete for iron binding
    • - nitric oxide- inhibits ATP production
  6. normal flora
    relationship bewteen microbes and host
  7. synergism
    give them something to survive off of and they give us something in return
  8. commensalism
    we dont benefit but bacteria isnt harmful either
  9. antagonism
    one benefits at the other expense
  10. second line defenses
    • 1. WBC
    • 2. phagocytosis
    • 3. lymphatic system
  11. neutrophils
    phagocytic
  12. basophils
    produce histamine
  13. eosinophils
    toxic to parasites, allergic reactions, some phagocytosis
  14. monocytes
    phagocytosis as mature macrophages
  15. fixed macrophages
    spleen, liver, lungs
  16. wondering macrophages
    roam tissues
  17. chemotaxis
    cells recruited to infection
  18. process of phagocytosis
    • 1. chemotaxis
    • 2. attachment
    • 3. engulfment
    • 4. phagosome lysosome fusion
    • 5. destruction
    • 6. exocytosis
  19. cardinal signs
    heat, pain, swelling, redness
  20. chemicals released by damaged cells
    histamine, kinins, prostaglandins, leukotrienes
  21. apoptosis
    programmed cell death
  22. what causes fever?
    pyrogens
  23. endogenous
    fever inducing cytokines
  24. exogenous
    bacterial endotoxins
  25. what is the complement system?
    • - inactive proteins
    • - strengthens adaptive immunity
    • - casade of enzymatic reactions
  26. name the pathways of the complement system
    • 1. classical
    • 2. alternative
    • 3. lectin
  27. classical pathway
    • - quickest and most efficient
    • - activation requires antibodies
    • - membrane attack complex
  28. alternative pathway
    • - easily initated
    • - activation by C3b to cell surface
  29. lectin pathway
    - activation requires mannon-binding lectins
  30. alpha and beta interferons
    cause cells to produce antiviral proteins that inhibit viral replication
  31. gamma interferon
    causes neutrophils and macrophages to phagocytize bacteria
  32. 2 kinds of adaptive immunity
    • 1. cell-mediated
    • 2. humoral
  33. primary lymphoid organs
    • - bone marrow- B cells maturation
    • - thymus- T cells maturation
  34. secondary lymphoid organs
    • - encounter antigens
    • - nodes, spleen, tonsils
  35. epitopes
    stimulates immune system
  36. 3 antigen characteristics
    • 1. protein structure
    • 2. can be carbohydrates
    • 3. molecular wieght > 10 kilo Daltons
  37. 2 parts of anitbody
    • 1. Fc region (constant)- determines class
    • 2. Fab region (variable)- binding site
  38. IgM
    • - first to respond to infection
    • - pentamer but found on B lymphocytes as a monomer
    • - only one formed by the fetus
  39. IgG
    • - dominant in circulation
    • - monomer
    • - can cross placenta
    • - memory
  40. IgA
    • - found in secretions, not circulating
    • - monomer in serum but dimer in secretions
  41. IgD
    • - maturation of antibody response
    • - monomer
  42. IgE
    • - barely detectable in circulation
    • - monomer
    • - allergic rxns
  43. clonal selection
    specific response of mature B cells to an antigens epitopes
  44. clonal expansion
    repeated cycles of cell division generates population of copied antibodies
  45. neutralization
    prevents toxin from interactin with cell
  46. opsonization
    coating of bacteria with antibody to enhance phagocytosis
  47. affinity maturation
    • - form of natural selection
    • - occurs among proliferating B cells
  48. cell-mediated immunity
    • - T cells never prducec antibodies
    • - antigens must be present by antigen presenting cell to T cell receptor
  49. 2 components of MHC
    • 1. class 1- expressed on every nucleated cell
    • - binds to CD8 cells
    • - endogenous
    • 2. class 2- expressed only on APC like macrophages
    • - binds to CD4
    • - exogenous
  50. 2 parts of helper T cells
    • - Th1- related to cell mediated immunity, sends out cytokines
    • - Th2- activate B cells to produce eosinophils, IgM, IgE
  51. what does CD8 kill the cell with?
    perforin
  52. delayed hypersensitivity T cells
    allergic rxns, TB test
  53. suppressor T cells
    turns off immune system when no antigen in present to avoid autoimmune effect
  54. what do natural killer cells lack?
    antigen specidicity
  55. how do natural killer cells recognize antigens?
    the Fc portion of the IgG antibodies
  56. natural killer cells recognize destroyed host cells with...
    • no MHC class 1 surface molecule
    • - important for viral infections
  57. interleukin 1
    stimulates CD4
  58. interleukin 2
    activates CD4, B, CD8, and NK cells
  59. interleukin 12
    differentiation of CD4 cells
  60. clonal deletion
    process of destroying B and T cells that react to self antigens
  61. B cells undergo positive or negative selection?
    negative
  62. T cells undergo positive or negative selection?
    both
  63. positive selection
    differentiation of T cells will only occur if the cell recognizes MHC molecule
  64. naturally acquried active immunity
    antibodies resulting from infection
  65. naturally acquired passive immunity
    Ab through placenta
  66. artifically acquired active immunity
    injection of antigens (vaccines)
  67. artifically acquired passive immunity
    injection of Ab
  68. attenuated vaccines
    live, weakened form of the pathogen
  69. inactivated vaccines
    contains killed organisms or inactivated virus
  70. what are the advantages of attenuated vaccines?
    • - usually a single dose
    • - has added potential for being spread to un-immunized individuals
  71. what are the disadvantages of attenuated vaccines?
    - could cause disease in immunocompromised individuals
  72. what is the advantage of inactivated vaccines?
    • - can not cause disease
    • - immunogenic- process of gaining immunity
  73. what are the disadvantages of inactivated vaccines?
    • - magnitude of response is limited
    • - no amplification of the dose in vivo (booster shots)
  74. examples of whole agents that are inactivated vaccines
    cholera, plague, flu, salk polio
  75. examples of fragment agents that are inactivated vaccines
    DTP and hep B
  76. what is type 1 hypersensitivitiy called?
    immediate IgE mediated
  77. immediate IgE mediated
    • - inherited
    • - charaterized by immediate reaction of the sensitized individual
  78. sensitization
    occurs when antigen induces plasma cells to secrete IgE antibodies
  79. Fc region of IgE binds to receptors on what cells?
    mast and basophils
  80. what is type 2 hypersensitivity called?
    cytotoxic
  81. type 2 hypersensitivity involves what antibodies?
    IgG or IgM or ADCC that all cause cell death
  82. examples of type 2 hypersensitivity
    tranfusion rxns and hemolytic disease of the newborn
  83. what is type 3 called?
    immune complex mediated
  84. immune complex mediated
    IgG and antigens form complexes (usually adhere to the Fc receptors are destroyed and removed)
  85. immune complex mediated initates what?
    blood clotting mechanism and inflammation
  86. immune complex mediated complexes are deposited where?
    skin, kidneys, joints
  87. type 4 hypersensitivity is called?
    delayed cell mediated
  88. what is delayed hypersensitivites due to?
    cytotoxic T cells that release cytokines that initiate inflammation that attracts marcophages (nothing to due with Ab binding to Ag)
  89. septicemia
    acute life threatening illness causes by infectious agent or its products circulating in blood
  90. what are the steps for a pathogen to take in order to establish a diesase?
    • 1. adherence
    • 2. colonization- multiplying on a body surface
    • 3. delivery of effector molecules that induce changes in the recipient cell
  91. communicable disease
    disease transmitted from one host to another
  92. what are the 2 things for a pathogen in a communicable disease?
    • - must have a suitable environment (reservoir)
    • - must leave the reservoir to be transmitted
  93. morbidity rate
    number of cases of illness divided by population at risk
  94. mortality rate
    population that dies from disease
  95. incidence
    number of new cases per specific time period
  96. prevalence
    total number of existing cases
  97. reservoirs affect....
    the extent and distribution of disease
  98. name 3 reservoirs
    humans, animals, environmental (nearly impossible to elimate)
  99. horizontal transmission
    pathogen passed to next reservoir via contact with food, water or living agent
  100. epidemiologists investigate disease outbreak to determine...
    • - causative agent
    • - reservoir
    • - route of transmission
  101. cross- sectional study
    survey of range of people to determine prevalence of number of characteristics
  102. retrospective study
    comparing to healthy individuals that already had the disease
  103. prospective study
    looking ahead to see if risk factor from retrospective study predict tendency to develop disease
  104. nosocomial infections are known as
    hospital acquired infections
  105. what factors determines which organisms and agents are responsible for nosocomial infections?
    • - length of time of exposure
    • - manner of exposure
    • - virulence and number of organisms
    • - state of host defenses
  106. antibiotics
    antimicrobial substance is synthesized and secreted by some true microorganism
  107. semisynthetics
    antibiotic that is chemically altered after purification to impart new characteristics
  108. synthetics
    antimicrobial substance synthesized in a lab
  109. a high therapeutic index is more or less toxic to a patient?
    less
  110. bacteriostatic drugs
    • - inhibit bacterial growth
    • - relies on host immunity to eliminate pathogen
  111. bacteriocidal drugs
    • - kills bateria
    • - useful when host defenses can not be relied upon to control pathogen
  112. if gram (+) then antimicrobial drugs cause...
    inhibition of cell wall synthesis
  113. antimicrobial drugs can cause inhibition to...
    • 1. cell wall synthesis- high therapeutic index
    • 2. protein synthesis- targets ribosomes
    • 3. nucleic acid synthesis- targets enzymes necessary for DNA replication
    • 4. metabolic pathways- folic acid
  114. this drug binds to gram (-) that alters the permeability which leads to leakage of cell components and cell death
    polymyxin B
  115. synergistic drugs
    2 drugs working together

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