Animal Biology Lecture 9

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Animal Biology Lecture 9
2011-03-01 20:11:49
Exam Lecture

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  1. What is Acanthostega?
    Which chordates are tetrapods?
    Transitional fossil between fish and amphibians

    Amphibians, reptiles, and mammals
  2. What does Amphibia mean? To what does it refer?
    • "Two lives"
    • name refers to metaporphisis
  3. Why are frogs and toads so noisy?
    To attract femals and defend territories
  4. What is atrazine? How does it act as an endocrine disruptor on leopard frogs? What is the range of proportion of deformed frogs across the United States? Where is the site where the incidence
    of deformed male frogs is highest?
    • The most widely used Herbicide in the U.S. mimics estrogen and feminizes frogs
    • rang: 0-90%
    • 10 km south of Saratoga
  5. What key innovation allowed tetrapods to truly
    invade land?
    The amniotic egg
  6. Name and describe all the unique characteristics
    of amniotic eggs including the 4 membranes and albumen. Chordates that possess amniotic eggs (or
    amnions) are called amniotes, which chordates are amniotes?
    Shell-relatively water impermeable so can breathe and contain water

    • Amnion- fluid filled cavity and cushions embryo
    • Allantois- contains waste where metabolic wastes are collected
    • Chorion- allows gas exchange

    • Chordates that are amniotes-Mammals, reptiles (turtles, lizard, snakes, birds)
    • Albumen (egg whites) and the amnion are the only 2 sources of water for the egg
  7. List 4 other characteristics of reptiles.
    • - amniotic eggs
    • - dry skin covered in scales
    • - internal fertilization
    • - ectothermic poikilotherms
  8. Define the following words: endotherm, ectotherm, homeotherm, and poikilotherm. Be able to identify examples in each combination (e.g. ectothermic poikilotherm).
    • Endotherm- use internal, metabolic energy to regulate body temp. (us)
    • Ectotherm- use external sources (rocks)
    • Homeotherm- body temp. relatively constant
    • Poikilotherm- body temp. variable

    • endothermic poikilotherm: humming bird moth stop beating their wings and temp goes down. (most insects are ectotherm)
    • ectothermic poikilotherm: spider
    • ectothermic homeotherm: tapeworm (live inside homeotherms)
    • endothermic homeotherm: cows, us, birds
  9. What is Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and Net
    Primary Productivity (NPP)? Why are these concepts relevant to animals in ecosystems?
    • GPP- the amount of E per biomass converted to chemical E by primary producers per unit time
    • NPP- amount of E/biomass produced that's available to consumers because some of the captured E is used for repiration
    • NPP=GPP-R
    • relevant: because all of our E comes from either primary producers or animals that eat primary producers
    • Sets budget for entire ecosystem and how much E is available for animals
  10. What is Net Secondary Production? Why isn’t
    everything that an animal consumes used to make new biomass (in the form of growth or reproduction)?
    NSP- all E ingested by animals, it is the small fraction that is converted to new biomass growth & reproduction
  11. What is production efficiency? Be able to compute production efficiencies if I give you the total energy consumed by animal, the total converted to net secondary production and the amounts lost to
    cellular respiration and feces.
    Net Secondary Production/ Total Energy Consumed

    • Ex.
    • 33J net secondary production
    • 67J respiration
    • 100J feces
    • 33J/200J=16.5%
  12. Why are production efficiencies higher in
    ectotherms than in endotherms?
    Ectoderms use much less energy because they are not heating bodies
  13. What are the consequences of production efficiency to the amount of energy available to consumers (primary, secondary and tertiary)?
    • Production Pyramid
    • more energy available to primary producers and primary consumers; less energy available to secondary and tertiary consumers.
  14. What are the consequences of production efficiency to the relative biomass of primary producers, primary consumers, secondary consumers and tertiary consumers?
    Biomass pyramid; much more primary producers than tertiary consumers.
  15. What does the term “temperature-dependent sex
    determination” mean? What reptiles possess this? Based on the graph in slide 30, at what temperature would you incubate your eggs in you wanted all males? All females? A mixture?
    • Bury eggs deep at low temp. and you get males. the sex of the Turtle is determined by the temp. at which eggs are buried
    • 28.6 for all males
    • 29.4 for all females
    • 29 for mix
  16. Which group of reptiles are the most diverse in
    terms of size, reproduction, diet, habitat, and habit?
  17. What is Archaeopteryx ? Why do we think that birds are simply feathered dinosaurs?
    • Earliest known bird (late jurassic 160 mya)
    • Fossils are evidence of this, birds with teeth, claws on wings and bony tails. Look like dinasours
  18. What are the characteristics of birds that
    differentiate them from other reptiles?
    • they are endotherms
    • - Feathers
    • - 4 chambered heart
    • - lightweight for flight (honeycomb bones)
    • - wings
    • - No bladder
  19. Which of these traits facilitate flight?
    Feathers, wings
  20. What is the primary protein in feathers?
  21. Which is the most diverse Order of birds? Give an example of a bird in this Order.
    Passeriformes (perching birds)