What is Acanthostega?
Which chordates are tetrapods?
Transitional fossil between fish and amphibians
Amphibians, reptiles, and mammals
What does Amphibia mean? To what does it refer?
name refers to metaporphisis
Why are frogs and toads so noisy?
To attract femals and defend territories
What is atrazine? How does it act as an endocrine disruptor on leopard frogs? What is the range of proportion of deformed frogs across the United States? Where is the site where the incidence
of deformed male frogs is highest?
The most widely used Herbicide in the U.S. mimics estrogen and feminizes frogs
10 km south of Saratoga
What key innovation allowed tetrapods to truly
The amniotic egg
Name and describe all the unique characteristics
of amniotic eggs including the 4 membranes and albumen. Chordates that possess amniotic eggs (or
amnions) are called amniotes, which chordates are amniotes?
Shell-relatively water impermeable so can breathe and contain water
Amnion- fluid filled cavity and cushions embryo
Allantois- contains waste where metabolic wastes are collected
Chorion- allows gas exchange
Chordates that are amniotes-Mammals, reptiles (turtles, lizard, snakes, birds)
Albumen (egg whites) and the amnion are the only 2 sources of water for the egg
List 4 other characteristics of reptiles.
- amniotic eggs
- dry skin covered in scales
- internal fertilization
- ectothermic poikilotherms
Define the following words: endotherm, ectotherm, homeotherm, and poikilotherm. Be able to identify examples in each combination (e.g. ectothermic poikilotherm).
Endotherm- use internal, metabolic energy to regulate body temp. (us)
Ectotherm- use external sources (rocks)
Homeotherm- body temp. relatively constant
Poikilotherm- body temp. variable
endothermic poikilotherm: humming bird moth stop beating their wings and temp goes down. (most insects are ectotherm)
What is Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and Net
Primary Productivity (NPP)? Why are these concepts relevant to animals in ecosystems?
GPP- the amount of E per biomass converted to chemical E by primary producers per unit time
NPP- amount of E/biomass produced that's available to consumers because some of the captured E is used for repiration
relevant: because all of our E comes from either primary producers or animals that eat primary producers
Sets budget for entire ecosystem and how much E is available for animals
What is Net Secondary Production? Why isn’t
everything that an animal consumes used to make new biomass (in the form of growth or reproduction)?
NSP- all E ingested by animals, it is the small fraction that is converted to new biomass growth & reproduction
What is production efficiency? Be able to compute production efficiencies if I give you the total energy consumed by animal, the total converted to net secondary production and the amounts lost to
cellular respiration and feces.
Net Secondary Production/ Total Energy Consumed
33J net secondary production
Why are production efficiencies higher in
ectotherms than in endotherms?
Ectoderms use much less energy because they are not heating bodies
What are the consequences of production efficiency to the amount of energy available to consumers (primary, secondary and tertiary)?
more energy available to primary producers and primary consumers; less energy available to secondary and tertiary consumers.
What are the consequences of production efficiency to the relative biomass of primary producers, primary consumers, secondary consumers and tertiary consumers?
Biomass pyramid; much more primary producers than tertiary consumers.
What does the term “temperature-dependent sex
determination” mean? What reptiles possess this? Based on the graph in slide 30, at what temperature would you incubate your eggs in you wanted all males? All females? A mixture?
Bury eggs deep at low temp. and you get males. the sex of the Turtle is determined by the temp. at which eggs are buried
28.6 for all males
29.4 for all females
29 for mix
Which group of reptiles are the most diverse in
terms of size, reproduction, diet, habitat, and habit?
What is Archaeopteryx ? Why do we think that birds are simply feathered dinosaurs?
Earliest known bird (late jurassic 160 mya)
Fossils are evidence of this, birds with teeth, claws on wings and bony tails. Look like dinasours
What are the characteristics of birds that
differentiate them from other reptiles?
they are endotherms
- 4 chambered heart
- lightweight for flight (honeycomb bones)
- No bladder
Which of these traits facilitate flight?
What is the primary protein in feathers?
Which is the most diverse Order of birds? Give an example of a bird in this Order.