Psych Test 2

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shandle
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69879
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Psych Test 2
Updated:
2011-03-01 14:20:29
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Psych Psychology
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Study cards for test
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  1. What is the function of glial cells?
    • Form myelin and provide support and
    • protection for neurons.
  2. The destruction of the myelin sheath
    results in movement difficulties for sufferers of multiple
    sclerosis because:
    • Impulses can no longer leap up and down
    • the axon, or eventually cannot travel down the axon, so information transmission is greatly slowed.
  3. How does drugs such as Prozac work to
    treat depression?
    Drugs such as Prozac (Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor) work by partially preventing Serotonin from being reabsorbed back into nerve cells. The mood lightening effects of Serotonin lasts longer because it is in the brain longer.
  4. Why does Morphine and Heroin reduce
    pain?
    • They bind to endorphin receptors,
    • thereby increasing endorphin activity. They also trigger the brain's
    • reward center—causing the release of dopamine.
  5. What is the main idea of the activation-synthesis hypothesis?
    Neurons in the pons fire spontaneously during REM sleep, sending random signals to various areas in the cortex and the emtional areas in the limbic system. The signals are random, but the brain tries to make sense of them and produce a meaningful interpretation. Thus, a dream is the brain's synthesis of these signals. Because the signals evoke random memories and visual images, the brain has a difficult time weaving a coherent story.
  6. Which of the following poisons initially acts as an agonist for acetylcholine (ACh) by causing its continuous release?
    Black widow spider venom causes the continous release of ACh, flooding the synapse. Death occurs through paralysis after the supply of ACh has been exhausted.
  7. For any particular neuron, an “all-or-nothing” event refers to what?
    There is either an impulse or there is not. If there is an impulse, it always travels down the axon at the same speed regardless of the intensity of the stimulus input.
  8. In relation to neural transmission, what is happening during binding?
    Neurotransmitter molecules fit into the dendrite receptor sites on the receiving neuron like a key fits into a lock. After delivering their message, the molecules go back into the gap.
  9. A split-brain patient is presented with a lime to her right visual field and a lemon to her left visual field. If asked to say orally what she saw, her response would be ______. If asked to point with her left hand to what she saw, she would point at the ______.
    • ???
    • Lemon
  10. Sleep researchers have hypothesized that sleep spindles, occurring during ______ sleep, serve to ______ the brain's sensitivity to sensory input.
    • REM
    • Increase
  11. What is a major criticism of the activation-synthesis hypothesis?
    Dream content is more coherant, consistent over time, and concerned with waking problems and anxieties than the activation-synthesis theory would predict.
  12. Psychophysics is the study of ______.
    The relationship between the physical world and the psychological world.
  13. The absolute threshold for visual input might also be described as:
    The minimum amount of energy in a visual stimulus detected 50 percent of the time.
  14. According to Weber's Law, if the difference threshold for a 10-pound weight were .20 pounds, the difference threshold for a 50 pound weight would be______.
    1lb.
  15. Cones provide greater visual acuity than rods because:
    They tend to have more direct routes than the rods to the bipolar and ganglion cells for the retinal information that they process.
  16. If you mix an equal amount of red, green, and blue wavelengths of light, the resulting color appears:
    White.
  17. According to the opponent-process theory, if you stared at a red and blue image and then looked away at a white piece of paper, you would perceive the opponent colors:
    ???
  18. As an individual walks away from us, the visual image we sense decreases in size; however,the visual image we perceive does not. This is due to:
    Perceptual constancy
  19. When the moon is on the horizon, the size of the retinal image of the moon is ______ when the moon is overhead. Distance cues lead us to believe that the horizon moon is ______.
    • the same as
    • larger
  20. Susan has conditioned her cats to come running when she shakes their box of kitty treats.When Susan first began shaking the box, the noise from the box would have been considered a(n) ______ but after conditioning had occurred, the noise from the box would be considered a(n) ______.
    • UCS
    • CR
  21. When the UCS no longer follows the CS, it is likely that the ______ will disappear through theprocess of ______.
    • *CR
    • *Extinction
  22. Jeff's cat is classically conditioned to come to the kitchen at the sound of the electric canopener. One day while Jeff is doing some repairs in the kitchen, he notices that his cat comes running to the kitchen every time he uses his electric drill, which sounds similar to the canopener. In this situation, the cat is displaying ______.
    Stimulus generalization
  23. When behavioral psychologists reinforce successive approximations to the desired response,they are using the process of:
    Shaping
  24. Instinctual Drift:
    • The tendency for an animal to drift back from a learned operant response to an innate instinctual response to an object.
    • -Pigs push coins with snouts
    • -Raccoons rub coins in between hands
  25. According to your textbook, Albert Bandura's investigation of observational learningdemonstrated that children:
    Chidlren's behavior is guided by a model's behavior.
  26. After surgery to reduce the impact of epileptic seizures, H. M. suffered from ______ amnesia,meaning that he was unable to ______.
    • Anterograde Amnesia
    • New Long-term Memories
  27. Infantile/child amnesia is an inability as adults to remember events that occurred in our livesbefore about 3 years of age. One explanation for infantile/child amnesia is that ______ is notfully developed.
    Hippocampus
  28. Which of the following does research suggest is one of the best ways of rememberinginformation
    Semantic
  29. After he had a few beers, Larry reorganized the closet where he kept his sporting equipment.The next day, he could not find his tennis racquet. However, the following weekend, after havinga few beers, Larry remembered where he put his racquet, an example of ______.
    State-Dependent Memory
  30. Long-term memory is best when a person's mood state is the same at encoding and retrieval,an effect known as ___
    Mood-Dependent Memory
  31. Which of the following phenomena is based on the encoding specificity principle?
    The principle that the enviromental cues (both internal and external) present at the time information is encoded into long-term memory serve as the best retrieval cues for the information.
  32. Why did Ebbinghaus use meaningless nonsense syllables to study memory?
    To study pure memory for the list items
  33. The forgetting curve for long-term memory initially shows a ______, followed by a ______
    • Rapid steep decrease
    • Leveling off
  34. The results of Bartlett's research on people's memory for very unusual stories illustrated whichof the following
    Schemas and their effects on memory
  35. The research by Loftus and Palmer (1974) on the misinformation effect revealed thatparticipants were more likely to say ______ if the word “smashed” (rather than “hit”) wasincluded in the question about the traffic accident they had seen on film
    Estimated the speed to be higher

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