Short Nutrition

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Author:
elz125
ID:
69887
Filename:
Short Nutrition
Updated:
2011-03-01 13:37:49
Tags:
Nutrition
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Description:
Small amount of nutrition info
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  1. Complete Protein
    • has all essential amino acids (good quality)
    • animal proteins
  2. Incomplete Protein
    plants
  3. How Vegetarians Get Protein
    legumes (dried beans), peanut butter sandwich, rice and beans, tortilla and beans
  4. End Products of Proten Digestion
    • amino acids
    • dipeptides
  5. Protein Needs
    8 g/ kg body weight
  6. HDL
    • high density lipoproteins
    • healthy carriers of fat
    • clean-up cholesterol and take to liver
    • good
  7. LDL
    • low density lipoproteins
    • bad
  8. Hydrogenation
    • adding hydrogens to unsaturated fats to make them saturated fats
    • margarine
  9. Hydrogenation Bond
    turn cis fats into trans fats
  10. Cis Fats
    • natural
    • hydrogens on same side of carbon chain
  11. Trans Fats
    • flips hydrogens to opposite side of carbon chain
    • bad
  12. Low Cholesterol
    less than 20 mg
  13. Cholesterol Free
    less than 2 mg
  14. Dietary Goals
    • 30% total fat (10% sat, 10% poly, 10% unsat)
    • 60% carbs
    • 10% proteins
  15. Fat Digestion End Products
    • monoglycerides
    • glycerol
    • fatty acids
  16. Foods Rich in Cholesterol
    • milk
    • cheese
    • eggs
    • meat
    • animal products
  17. Calculating Total Fat
    • 150g CHO, 15g fat, 4g protein
    • 150g x 4 k/g = 600 kcals
    • 15g x 9 = 135
    • 4g x 4 = 16
    • 600 + 135 + 16 = 751
  18. Calculating Nutrients in Grams
    • 2400 kcals, 45% fat
    • 2400 x .45 = 1080 kcals
    • 1080/9 = 120g
  19. Soluble Fiber Benefits
    • prevents heart disease (lowers cholesterol)
    • increases stool moisture
    • lowers glucose absorption
  20. Insoluble Fiber Benefits
    • reduces risk of diverticulosis
    • increase stool weight and frequency
    • decreases transit time
    • prevents constipation (hemorhoids)
    • reduces risk of colon cancer
  21. Fiber Food Sources
    • whole grains
    • fruits
    • veggies
    • beans
  22. Sucrose
    • glucose + fructose
    • table sugar
  23. Fructose
    • glucose + glucose
    • fruit sugar
  24. lactose
    • glucose + galactose
    • milk sugar
  25. Glycogen
    storage form of glucose in liver and muscles in limited amounts
  26. Monounsaturated Fat
    • 1 double bond
    • sources: olive, canola, peanut oil, avacados, nuts
    • oleic fatty acid
  27. Saturated Fat
    • no double bonds
    • max # of hydrogens
    • sources: coconut, palm, palm kernal oils
    • steric fatty acid
  28. Polyunsaturated Fat
    • sources: corn, cottonseed, flaxseed, safflower, sunfower, sesame seed, soybean, wheat germ
    • linoleic, linolenic, arachidonic, EPA, DHA
  29. Omega 3's
    • decrease platelet stickiness
    • sources: tuna, salmon, anchovies, sardines
  30. Type 1 Diabetes
    • juvenile onset
    • no insulin
  31. Type 2 Diabetes
    • insulin resistance
    • typically overweight
  32. Whole Grain Parts
    • bran: fiber, vitamins, minerals
    • endosperm: starch, protein
    • germ: fats, vitamins, minerals
  33. DRI
    • dietary reference intake
    • RDA, EAR, AI, UL
  34. RDA
    • recommended dietary allowance
    • based on age and gender
    • intended for a group
    • set a 98% of population (2 st. dev. above avg)
    • intended for healthy people
  35. EAR
    • estimated average requirements
    • based on average
  36. AI
    • adequate intake
    • insufficient data
  37. UL
    • tolerable upper level intake
    • above is toxic
  38. Peristalsis
    mechanical breakdown of food
  39. Energy
    carbs, fats, protein
  40. Protein Digestion
    if missing amino acid, digestion stops
  41. Glucose
    • excess is stored as glycogen in liver and muscles
    • if exceeds that, stored as fat
  42. Choosing a Margarine
    • first ingredient = liquid oil
    • soft in tub
    • trans fat free
  43. Nutrient Density
    • nutrient content in relation to calories
    • nutrients should be higher
  44. Preventing Unsaturated Fat from Spoiling
    • air-tight, non-metallic, container kept away from light and refrigerated
    • antioxidants (BHA, BHT, vit. D)
    • hydrogenation

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