Ecological Anthropology: Specialization within anthropology that focuses on subsistence strategies and how people exploit and adapt to their environment.
What is Subsistence Patterns?
Subsistence Patterns: Methods of obtaining food using available land and resources, available labor and energy, and technology.
What are Foragers?
Foragers: People whose subsistence pattern is hunting and gathering.
What are Food Producers?
Food Producers: Users of a subsistence strategy that transform and manages the environment in order to obtain food.
What is Pastoralism?
Pastoralism: A subsistence strategy focusing on raising and caring for large herds of domesticated animals.
What is Horticulture?
Horticulture: A subsistence strategy that focuses on small-scale farming using relatively simple technology
What is Agriculture?
Agriculture: A subsistence strategy focusing on intensive farming, investing a great a great deal of time, energy, and technology.
What is Carrying Capacity?
Carrying Capacity: The number of people who can be sustained by the resources and environment in which they live.
What is Settlement Pattern?
Settlement Pattern: The way people distribute themselves in their environment, including where they locate their dwellings, how they group dwellings into settlements, and how permanent or transitory those settlements are.
What is Reciprocity?
Reciprocity: Principles of mutual gift giving.
What is Redistribution?
Redistribution: The gathering together and reallocation of food and resources to ensure everyone’s survival.
What are Nomads?
Nomads: People who do not have permanent homes but travel to sources of food as the food becomes seasonably available.
Who are Complex Foragers:
Complex Foragers: Foraging societies that have developed permanent settlements, territorial exclusiveness, property accumulation, and social stratification of the basis of food storage technologies.
What is Transhumance?
Transhumance: The practice among pastoralists of moving to new pastureland on a seasonal basis.
What is Sedentism?
Sedentism: A settlement pattern involving long-term, permanent settlements.
What is Slash-and-burn (Swidden) Cultivation?
Slash-and-burn (Swidden) Cultivation: A farming technique for preparing new fields by cutting down trees and brushes and then burning them in order to clear the land and enrich the soil with nutrients.
Who are Peasants?
Peasants: Rural agriculturalists who are partly enmeshed in a larger social and economic system. Part of their production is devoted to supporting the larger system and its dominant elite.
What is Economic System?
Economic System: Methods of allocating resources, and the production, distribution, consumption, and exchange of goods and services.
What are Capital Goods?
Capital Goods: Items that are produced for the purpose of producing other goods rather than for production.
What is Social Capital?
Social Capital: Bonds of reliable friendship and support that a person can call on to achieve a goal.
What is Generalized Reciprocity?
Generalized Reciprocity: The exchange of goods and services without keeping track of their exact value but often with the expectation that their value will balance out over time.
What is Balanced Reciprocity?
Balanced Reciprocity: Exchange of goods and services of a specified value.
What is Negative Reciprocity?
Negative Reciprocity: Exchange of goods and services in which each party seeks to benefit and the expense of the other, thus making a profit.
What is Barter?
Barter: An exchange of products in which one person gives one type of product in exchange for another type of product.
What is Redistributive Networks?
Redistributive Networks: - Economic systems in which food and other goods are amassed by an organizer and then distributed to community members or guest at large public gatherings.
What is General Purpose Money?
General Purpose Money: Money that can be used to acquire any of the resources, goods, and services within an economic system
What is Special Purpose Money?
Special Purpose Money: Money that can be used for only a limited range of transactions.
What is Market Economy?
Market Economy: Economic system in which products are traded in impersonal exchanges between buyers and sellers using and all-purpose currency.
What is Commodity?
Commodity: A product that can be sold or traded in return for money or other products.
What is Capitalism?
Capitalism: An economic mod of production in which the goal is to amass wealth in the form of money in order to gain control over the means of production and then use this control to accumulate even greater wealth.
What is Surplus Value?
Surplus Value: The amount of value produced by workers in capitalist production that is greater than the wage paid to them.
What is Consumerism?
Consumerism: Culture of consumption of goods and services.
What is Colonialism?
Colonialism: Policies in which countries establish colonies in distant places in order to exploit their resources and labor and possibly to establish settlements of their own citizens abroad.
What are Poll Taxes?
Poll Taxes: Taxes levied on households.
What is Post-Industrialism?
Post-Industrialism: An economic order based on the expansion of the service economy, especially within the knowledge sector, and on globally organized corporations and institutions.
What is Political Organization?
Political Organization: The ways in which societies are organized to plan group activities, make decisions affecting members of the group, select leadership, and settle disputes both within the group and with other groups.
What is Political Anthropology?
Political Anthropology: The study of the ways that communities plan group actions, make decisions affecting the group, select leadership, and resolve conflicts and disputes both within the group and with other groups.
What are Bands?
Bands: Small, loosely organized groups of people held together by informal means.
What are Tribes?
Tribes: Societies with some degree of formalization of structure and leadership, including village and intervillage councils whose members regularly meet to settle disputes and plan community activities.
What are Associations?
Associations: Sociopolitical groups that link people in a community on the basis of shared interests and skills.
What is Age Grade (Age Set)?
Age Grade (Age Set):A sociopolitical association of people of more or less similar age who are given specific social functions.
What are States?
States: Highly organized centralized political systems with a hierarchical structure of authority.
What is Terrorism?
Terrorism: A criminal act intended or calculated to provoke a state of terror in the general public, a group of persons or particular persons for political purposes.
What is Factionalism?
Factionalism: The tendency for groups to split into opposing parties over political issues, often a cause of violence and a threat to political unity.
What is Revolution?
Revolution: An attempt to overthrow the existing government.
What is Religion?
Religion: Beliefs and practices about spirit beings and supranormal and superhuman forces and their relationship to everyday life.
What is Religious Speech?
Religious Speech: Invocations, prayers, prophecies, songs of praise, and curses that are powerful means of transmitting messages about the world.
What is Animism?
Animism: Belief in the existence of souls.
What is Animatism?
Animatism: Belief that all things, including men and women, are endowed with a pervasive spiritual power.
What is Polytheism?
Belief in the existence of numerous deities that have specific attributes, powers, and functions.
What are Monotheistic Religions?
Monotheistic Religions: Belief systems that hold to the existence of one supreme deity who has knowledge and powers that affect all aspects of life.
What is Ancestor Worship?
Ancestor Worship: Belief in the importance of ancestors as they affect the lives of their survivors, protecting their descendants in the return for the rituals of honor performed to show them respect.
What is Totemism?
Totemism: Belief system in which people believe they are descendants of spirit beings.
What are Secret Societies?
Secret Societies: Organizations that control the use of special objects used in religious rituals.
Who are Mediums?
Mediums: Persons having special gifts to make contact with the spirit world, often in a state of trance.
Who are Diviners?
Diviners: Persons with the power to predict the future through messages and omens from the spirit world.
Who are Healers?
Healers: Religious practitioners who acquire spirit power to diagnose the spirit cause of illness and effect cures.
Who are Shamans?
Shamans: Religious practitioners who are believed to make contact with the spirit world through prayer, ritual, and trance.
Who are Priests?
Priests: Full-time religious practitioners who lead a religious organization and officiate at rituals but are not expected to be able to communicate directly with the spirit world.
What are Rituals?
Rituals: Activities, including religious speech, ceremonies, and behaviors that are demonstrations of belief
What are Sacred Rituals?
Sacred Rituals: Activities, places, or objects that are connected to the spirit realm and are imbued with power.
What is Rites of Renewal?
Rites of Renewal: Rituals performed with the goal of renewing the bounty of the earth.
What is Prayer?
Prayer: Religious speech or though through which believers transmit messages to spirit beings.
What is Sacrifice?
Sacrifice: Offerings made to spirit beings in order to show gratitude and honor.
What are Puberty Rites?
Puberty Rites: Rituals performed to mark the passage of an individual from childhood to adulthood; also called initiation rites.
What are Calendric Rituals?
Calendric Rituals: Ceremonies performed at specific times during the year, for example, agricultural rituals performed for planting, growing, and harvesting crops.
What are Funerary Rites?
Funerary Rites: Rituals performed to mark a person’s death and passage to the afterworld.
What is Spirit Possession?
Spirit Possession: Belief that spirits can enter a person’s body and take over their thoughts and actions.
What is Imitative Magic?
Imitative Magic: Magic that operates on the principle of “like causes like.”
What is Contagious Magic?
Contagious Magic: Magic that operates on the principle that positive and negative qualities can be transferred through proximity or contact.
What is Cosmology?
Cosmology: Religious worldview of a people, including beliefs about the origin of the world, the pantheon of deities that exist, and their relationships to the spirit realm.
What is Syncretism?
Syncretism: The blending of two religious traditions to form a new one.
Who are Prophets?
Prophets: Religious leaders who receive divine inspiration, often in a vision or trance.
What is Natvistic Movements?
Natvistic Movements: Revitalization movements attempting to rid society of foreign elements and return to what is conceived to be a prior state of cultural purity.
What are Millinerian Movements?
Millinerian Movements: Revitalization movements incorporating apocalyptic themes, prophesying and abrupt end to the world as we know it, leading to the establishment of a new way of life of form of existence.
What are Messianic Movements?
Messianic Movements: Revitalization movements stressing the role of a prophet or messiah as a savior for his or her people.
What are Cargo Cults?
Cargo Cults: Revitalization movements arising in Melanesia in the early twentieth century with the aim of obtaining material wealth though magical means.
What is Proselytism?
Proselytism: The attempt to convert a person or group from one religion to another.
What is Fundamentalism?
Fundamentalism: A term coined in the United States in 1920 meaning a commitment to defend traditional religious beliefs.