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What is autoimmunity?
An immune response to self-antigens, which the body normally tolerates.
What is an example of an acquired immune deficiency?
AIDS is the best known acquired immune deficiency and is the result of infection of HIV.
What is an acquired immunity?
An acquired immunity is protection from disease and is either active or passive. If it is developed by the body after exposure to an antigen it is active. If it is transferred to a person from an outside source then it is passive.
What are anatomical barriers?
They are external, non-specific barriers that prevent penetration of all invaders through the skin and internal passage ways.
What is the antibody that is produced during the primary response?
What is an antigen-antibody complex?
The substance that is formed when an antibody combines with an antigen to deactivate or destroy it. AKA the immune complex.
Define autoimmune disease.
A condition in which the body produces antibodies against its own tissue.
What is a B lymphocyte?
The type of white blood cells that, in response to the presence of an antigen produce antibodies that attack the antigen, develop a memory of the antigen, and confer long-term immunity to the antigen.
What is chemotaxis?
The attraction of white cells to the site of inflammation.
What is clonal diversity?
When B lymphocyte precursors in the bone marrow develops receptors for every possible kind of antigen it may encounter.
What is cortisol?
A steriod hormone released by the adrenal cortex that regulates the metabolism of fats, carbos, sodium, & proteins and also has an anti-inflammatory effect.
What are cytokines?
Proteins, produced by white blood cells, that regulate immune responses by binding with and affecting the function of the cells that produced them or of other nearby cells.
What is a dynamic steady state?
What are epithelial cells?
New skin cells that move in under a scab, separating it from the wound surface and provide protection to the healing wound.
What are the four functions of inflammation?
- -Destroy & remove unwanted substances
- -Wall off the infected & inflamed area
- -Stimulate the immune response
- -Promote healing
What is the function of exudate?
It moves out of the capillaries and into the tissues to attack unwanted substance and promote healing.
What is a granuloma?
A tumor or growth that forms when foreign bodies that cannot be destroyed by macrophages are surrounded and walled off.
What is growth hormone?
A hormone that is released from the anterior pituitary gland in response to stress. It affects protein, lipid and carbo metabolism and immune response.
Molecules that do not trigger an immune response on their own but can become immunogenic when combined with larger molecules.
What is the function of the hypothalmus in the chain of events regarding the stress response?
It produces corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), which then stimulates responses of the sympathetic nervous system and the endocrine system, which then affects the immune system.
What is the IgD lymphocyte?
Not much is known about its role and it's in low concentration.
What is IgE?
The principle antibody that contributes to allergic and anaphylactic reactions and to the prevention of parasitic infections. It is the least concentrated immunoglobulin.
What is IgM?
The antibody that is produced first during the primary immune response and is the largest immunoglobulin.
Briefly define the immune response.
The body's reactions that inactivates or eliminates foreign antigens.
Briefly describe the inflammatory response.
The body's response to cellular injury. It is quick acting, non-specific, temporary and leads to healing.
What is the kinin system?
A plasma protein system that produces bradykinin, a substance that works with prostaglandins to cause pain. Also has actions similar to those of histamines (vasodilation & bronchospasm, increased permeability of the blood vessels, and chemotaxis) but acts slower than a histamine and is more important in the later stages of inflammation.
What is a lymphocyte?
A white blood cell that attacks foreign substances as part of the body's immune system.
What is a macrophage?
A large white blood cell that will ingest and destroy, or partially destroy, invading organisms.
What are mast cells?
Large cells resemble bags of granules that reside near blood vessels. When stimulated by injury, chemicals, or allergic response they activate the inflammatory response by degranulation (emptying of their granules into the extracellular environment) and synthesis (construction of leukotrienes and prostaglandins).
What is natural immunity?
Inborn protection against infection or disease that is part of a person's or species' genetic makeup.
What are neutrophils?
Granular white blood cells (the most numerous of all the white blood cells) that are readily attracted to the site of inflammation where they quickly attack and phagocytose bacteria and other undesirable substances.
What is a phagocyte?
A cell that has the ability to ingest other cells and substances, such as bacteria and cell debris. All granulocytes and monocytes are phagocytes.
What are some of the physiological effects of catechlamines?
Brain: Increased blood flow & glucose metabolism
Cardiovascular system: Increased cardiac contractility & rate, peripheral vasoconstriction.
Pulmonary system: Increased ventilations & O2 supply, bronchodilation.
Liver: Increased gluconeogenesis & glycogenolysis, decrease in glycogen synthesis.
GI & genitourinary tracts: Decrease in protein synthesis.
Muscle: Increase in glycogenolysis, contraction, dilation of skeletal muscle vasculature.
Skeleton: Decreased glucose uptake & utilization (insulin release decreased).
Adipose tissue: Increased lipolysis, increased fatty acids and glycerol.
Skin: Decreased blood flow
Lymphoid tissue: Increased protein breakdown, shrinkage of lymphoid tissue
What is the primary immune response?
The initial development of antibodies in response to the first exposure to an antigen in which the immune system becomes "primed" to produce a faster and stronger response to any future exposures.
The complete healing of a wound and return of tissues to their normal structure and function; the ending of inflammation with no scar formation.
What is septicemia?
The systemic spread of toxins through the bloodstream. Also called sepsis.
What is serotonin?
A substance released by the platelets that, through constriction and dilation of blood vessels, affects blood flow to an injured or affected site.
Describe stage I of the general adaptation syndrome.
Alarm. The symathetic nervous system and endocine system are aroused and prepare the body for "fight or flight".
What is a T lymphocyte?
The type of white blood cell that does not produce antibodies, but instead directly attacks antigens itself.
What do Td cells do?
They transfer delayed hypersensitivity (allergic responses) and secrete proteins called lymphokines that activate other cells like macrophages.
What do Th cells do?
They are helper cells that facilitate both cell-mediated and humoral immune processes.
What are the main differences between the immune and inflammatory responses?
- Inflammation Immune
- Fast Slow
- Nonspecific Specific
- No memory Memory
- Multiple plasma systems One plasma system
- (complement, kinin, (Immunoglobulin)
- & coagulation)
- Multiple cell types One cell type
- (granulocytes, monocytes, (Lymphocytes)
- & macrophages)
What is the sequence of inflammation?
- 1) Acute inflammation ---> Healing, if not then,
- 2) Chronic inflammation ---> Healing, if not then,
- 3) Granuloma formation --->
- 4) Healing
What is a thrombocyte?
A blood cell responsible for clotting. Aka platelet.
What is the thymus?
It is the "T" in T lymphocyte and is responsible for the secretion of thymosin which promotes the maturation of the T lymphocytes.
What is a type 4 reaction in relation to hypersensitivity?
A cell mediated tissue reaction. They are activated by the T cells and include Td (lymphokine producing) and Tc (cytotoxic) cells. Td cells activate other cells like macrophages & Tc cells directly attack and kill by releasing their toxins.
What blood type is considered the universal donor?